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terribly destructive to life as well as property. A visitation of the kind in Peru,

Near the end of May, 1758, Washing1746, killed 3,800; 1797, from a similar ton was ordered by the quartermastercause, 1,600 Peruvians perished. At Car- general of the British forces to leave acas, 1812, 10,000 men were destroyed; / Winchester and make all haste to Wil60,000 at Lisbon in 1755; 40,000 in the liamsburg, there to explain to the gov. two Calabrias and Sicily in 1783, and 20,- ernor and council in wbat a desperate 000 more by sickness resulting from it. condition the Virginia troops were as re

garded clothing and equipments. Ac

cordingly he set out on horseback, acVera Cruz is nicely situated; it is sur

companied by his servant, Billy Bishop.

The two men had reached Williams rounded by beautiful plantations, which are studded with snug villas. Though crossed on the boat, when they met Mr.

Ferry, on the Pamunkey river, and had most of the houses look rough and fall

. Chamberlayne, a Virginia gentleman, ing into decay, the outside appearance of dilapidation is the worst of them, and is living

in the neighborhood. The hospitmore than compensated for by the inter- should at once go to his house. It was

able planter insisted that Washington nal comfort and luxury which the Mexi- afternoon, and dinner would be served cans know so well how to enjoy. The smiling gardens seem ever rejoicing in as usual, early, and after that Colonel the balmy breezes of summer, and the liamsburg, if go he must. Besides all

Washington could go forward to Wilgay-colored flowers delight the senses that there was a charming young widow with their perfume. The bowers of mi- at his house-Colonel Washington must mosas or the neighboring, orange groves have known her, the daughter of John fill at intervals tħe

air with their odors, Dandridge, and the wife of John Park whilst the crowns of the feathery palms Custis. Virginia hospitality was hard to wave slowly above the silent roofs which resist. Washington would stay to din. they overhang like symbols of peace and tranquility. During the heat of the day per if his host would let him Yurry off few pedestrians are to be seen on the streets or thoroughfares, but in the cool ter's horse around after dinner in good

Bishop was bidden to bring his masevenings, under skies of intensest blue, all is activity. The Mexicans then resign self to his host. Dinner followed, and

season, and Washington surrendered himthemselves to enjoyment; tinkling guitars the afternoon went by, and Mr. Chamare everywhere heard; parties bent on berlayne was in excellent humor, as he pleasure or for short excursions or pic kept one eye on the restless horses at the seems to be done to pass the time pleas- door, and the other on his guests, the tall

Indian-like officer and the graceful, antly. In the magic twilight, when the hazel-eyed, animated young widow. Sunair is still and scarce a breath is stirring, set came, and still Washington lingered, beautiful women can be observed throng- Then Mr. Chamberlayne stoutly declared ing the smooth, dusty streets. They are that no guest was ever permitted to leave peculiar in dress and wanner, lively and

his house after sunset. Mrs. Martha chatty, with an elegance of carriage and Custis was not the one to drive the soldier contour that are matchless. Some of them seem like figures chiseled out of away, and so Bishop was bidden to take marble. Their beauty is sure to excite the horses back to the stable. Not until the admiration of strangers, and many a take his leave. Then he dispatched his

the next morning did the young colonel sigh of regret is heard as they pass. business promptly at Williamsburg, and Their culture, it is said, is narrow; but whenever he could get an hour dashed they walk like empresses, and the love

over to the White House, where Mrs. liness of their features is nowhere sur, Custis lived. So prompt was be about passed. You can see many a face marked his business, also, that when he returned by that lofty stoicism and quick sensibil. to Winchester he had the promise of the ity, that princely pride, carrying the grandeur of the Castilian noblesse, that young widow that she would marry him native gentleness and passion combined as soon as the campaign. was over.

Thackeray, in his "Virginians," has a which, as is known, are the qualities of

description of Washington's courtship her lord, whose burdens she helps to haidlý so satisfactory as this. bear.

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lets. Of course, the one outlet need not Scientific.

appear as such in the apartment, as its mouth may be concealed by a perforated

cornice or other device. Speaking upon the subject of the ventilation of dwelling houses before the Toronto Sanitary Association, Mr. David Dick controverted the theory that the

A problem which is attracting to its carbonic acid of an inhabited room can study astronomers, relates to the earth as be drawn off by outlets placed at the a timekeeper. We measure time by difloor level, which is the French practice. viding

either the period during which the He pointed out that, in view of the prin earth revolves around the sun, or that in ciple of the diffusion of gases, it is im- which it turns on its axis. By the first possible to expect that carbonic acid, al method we measure a year; by the secthough the heavier gas, will so far sepond a day. The earth, according to some arate itself from the other components astronomers, is losing time. Through of the atmosphere as to be susceptible of two causes, the sun's attraction and the withdrawal at a low level. According to friction, so to speak, of the tides, the Mr. Dick, the only factor to be regarded earth each year revolves more slowly on in ventilation is temperature. The air is its axis. The speculative question which cold at the floor line and warm at the these

discussing is ceiling, the difference in rooms artificially whether in the end the earth will stop its heated or full of people being seldom revolution on its axis and will present alless than twenty degrees Fahrenheit. ways the same face to the sun. When Owing to this tendency of heated air to that event occurs there will be perpetual rise, and to be supplanted at the floor day in one part of the earth and perpetline by cold air coming in from crevices ual night in another. But there is no ocin the doors and windows, etc., Mr. Dick casion for immediate cause of alarm. considers that a room can not be proper- The rate at which the earth is supposed ly warmed solely by the radiant heat of to lose time only shortens the year by å fire. The heat from this source should half a second in a century. There are be helped by some means for preventing more than 31,000,000 seconds in a year. the draughts of cold air on the floor.

Therefore, if the earth ever does cease to With this view, Mr. Dick advises that revolve on its axis it will be more than rooms should be provided with many in- six thousand million years before it will lets for warmed fresh air at the floor line,

stop. the effect of which would drive up all impure air toward the hotter stratum

A plan for rendering paper as tough as near the ceiling. Anoutlet at the ceiling wood or leather has been recently introline would then carry off the whole of duced on the continent; it consists in the vitiated air. As the warm air begins mixing chloride of zinc with the pulp in to rise as soon as it enters the room, the the course of manufacture. It has been more it is sub-divided into separate inlets found that the greater the degree of conthe better, because it will ascend by the centration of the zinc solution the greater most direct line to the outlet; and there will be the toughness of the paper. It fore a number of small streams will move can be used for making boxes, combs, the general body of air in the room more for roofing, and even for making boats. effectually than one large current, which would be likely to pass through the body of air without affecting anything that The rays of the sun do not strike at did not happen to be directly in its path. the same angle upon the earth at all times

The temperature of the inflowing air and places. It has been ascertained that should be moderate, and its velocity low. water is raised four and a half feet at the It is desirable, however, that there should equator. This elevation corresponds to be only one outlet for foul air from an the increase of temperature. The presapartment, because if there were more sure at the bottom also decreases. This than one the draught might be unequal, is the source of the gulf stream, which and then one would pull against another, exercises so important an influence upon causing a flow of air down one and up the climate of the eastern and western the other, instead of from the proper in- i continents.



A GREAT TELEGRAPHING FEAT. The exploration of Icy bay, which is simply an indentation of the coast with ations of the pneumatic tube for carrying

An Englishman when shown the operan artificial guard composed of an immense glacier on its western side, was parcels in New York, said: “I have seen first made. On the south there is no pro. that,” said the visitor. "I have talked

just one thing more wonderful than tection from the heavy seas that almost by cable from London to Calcutta, India, constantly roll in, making landing even in the best of weather precarious. An over 7,000 miles of wire. Two years ago important geographical discovery was Andrews of the Indo-European Tele

I called upon managing director W. made in a large river that forces its way through passes in the St. Elias Alps and graph Company, at No. 18 Old Broad empties into the head of Icy bay. It is street, London. It was Sunday evening, described as possessing a bed from a mile and the wires were not busy. Mr. Anto a mile and a half wide, with a width

drews called up Emden, a German town. of water from eight hundred to a thous- 'Give me Odessa,' he wired; in a few and yards, and with long stretches of seconds we got the signal from the Rus

and swamp on either side. The sian seaport city, and asked for Teheran, river has not yet been explored, but it is the capital of Persia. 'Call Kurrachee, surmised that its headwaters are far in said Andrews. In less than a half a land, and that it is not simply formed minute we were signaling that India from the mountain drainage.

town. The signals came at the rate of Mt. St. Elias, the ascent of which was that the London office was testing the

fifteen words à minute. After learning the objective point of the expedition, was ascended to a height of 7,200 feet long wires, Kurrachee gave us Agra, and above sea level by Lieutenant Schwatka we chatted pleasantly for a few minutes and Messrs. Ward and Seaton Karr. with the operator on duty there. In a This is believed to be the highest Alpine short time the operator switched us on climbing ever made. The summit of the the cable to the Indian capital, Calcutta. mount was not reached, nor can it be At first the operator there could not befrom the direction followed by this ex- | lieve he was talking to London, and he pedition. Deep, yawning crevasses are

asked in the Morse language: 'Is this everywhere present, making wide detours really London, England ? It was a wonnecessary in ascending as far as the party

derful achievement. Metallic communiThree immense peaks, from 12,- cation between the capital of the Eng000 to 8,000 feet higher, were named lish nation and the seat of her governrespectively “ Cleveland Peak," “ Whit- ment in India, 7,000 miles away as the ney Peak” and “Nichols Peak."

bird fies." The Yukon river, one of the most extensive streams in the world, was little known until Frederick Whymper, in the employ of the Russo-American Telegraph A curious application of the wagnet is Company in 1866, directed attention to described in a French journal, the subit by publishing in 1869 an illustrated ject of it being a clock recently patented volume detailing his observations made in France. In appearance the clock conduring the residence of a year in its vi. sists of a tambourine, on the parchment cinity. In 1867, pearly two years before head of which is painted a circle of flowthe appearance of Whymper's book, an ers, corresponding to the hour signs of article in the Atlantic Monthly, which ordinary dials. On examination, two was the first published article on the bees, one large and the other small, are newly acquired territory, gave an ac- discovered crawling among the flowers. count of the adventurous boat voyage The small bee runs rapidly from one to down the unknown waters of the Yukon the other, completing the circle in an from above Nulato to the mouth of the bour; while the large one takes twelve river, over 200 miles, made by the late hours to finish the circuit. The parchCharles H. Pease. Later, in 1883, Lieu- ment membrane is unbroken, and the tenant Schwatka, the head of the present bees are simply laid upon it; but two expedition, explored the Yukon to a dis- magnets, connected with the clock work tance of 1,000 miles from its mouth, and inside the tambourine, move just under established the fact that to the United the membrane, and the insects, which States belongs another great river. are of iron, follow them.





day and a half less than the “Britannic." Various methods have been devised for To save this day and a half, the consumptreating the surface of certain woods so tion of coal is augmented by no less than as to produce imitations of rosewood, 1,400 tons. That is to say, the consumpwalnut and other choice varieties. Some lion bas been nearly doubled to save 36 of the most attractive work in this line, bours in time. This is startling enough, however, is effected by simply spreading but figures get more remarkable may be on the surface of the material a concen- obtained. Let us take for example, the trated solution of hypermanganate of po

Servia, ” and compare her with the tassa, this being allowed to act until the

“ Etruria.” The best passage of the latdesired shade is obtained. Five minutes ter is, in round numbers, 64 days; the suffice ordinarily to give a deep color, a best passage of the former is, also in few trials indicating the proper propor- round numbers, days. Using the tions. The hypermanganate of potassa figures given by Mr. John, of the Baris decomposed by the vegetable fiber row Ship Building Company, and neglectwith the precipitation of brown peroxide ing coal spent in getting up steam, etc., of manganese, which the influence of we have for the "Etruria," 315 6.25 the potassa, at the same time set free,

1,968.75 tons; and for the “Servia," fixes in a durable manner on the filbers. 205 x 7 = 1,435. That is to say, over When the action is terminated the wood 500 tons of coal are expended in shortenis carefully washed with water, dried, ing the passage by 18 hours. It may be and then oiled and polished in the usual urged that this is not all, and that the

The effect produced by this difference in the dimensions of the two process in several woods is really remark- vessels must be taken into account. But

"Servia" is a able. On the cherry, especially, it de- it so happens that the velops a beautiful red color which resists larger ship than the Etruria,” the diswell the action of air and light, and on placement of the former vessel being 10,other woods it has a very pleasing and 960 tons, and of the latter 9,860 tons, or natural effect.

1,100 tons less. The indicated horsepower of the “ Servia" is 10,300, and that of the “Etruria" 14,321. The latter ship has 1.45 indicated horse-power per

ton of displacement; the former a little One of the first things to suggest itself less than 0.94 indicated horse-power per about such ships as the “Etruria” or the ton of displacement.

"Umbria" is the vast cost at which their The enormous increase in horse-power efficiency has been obtained-a cost which required to put on a knot or a fraction of no one in his senses would have suggest- a knot in speed explains the difference in ed a quarter of a century ago. We do the coal consumption of the two ships. not here refer so much to the outlay of Nor does the additional expense end here. capital on ships and engines, enormous It will be seen that not only can the as that is, as on the working expenses. “ Servia" make a trip with 500 tons less Let us compare the performance of the coal tban the Etruria,” but she has “Etruria” with that of the “Britannic.

available for some purpose or another An interval of nearly ten years separates 1,100 tons more displacement. Part of the construction of the two ships. The that can be devoted to cargo, part to pas“ Britannic” is still running. Her con- senger space, even after due allowance is sumption is, we believe, about 90 tons of made for the greater weight of the hull. coal per day of 24 hours. Her passages But, furthermore, the boilers and engines average 8 days 9 hours outward and 8 of the “Etruria” weigh a great deal more days 2 hours homeward. Her consump- than do those of the Servia.” The more tion may, allowing for getting up steam, carefully we investigate the construction etc., be taken at 840 tons per voyage and performance of the two ships the The “Etruria's” fastest passage has been clearer does it become that the price paid 6 days 5 hours 31 minutes. Her average for reducing the time of transit between we do not know, but we shall not be far Liverpool and New York seems to be out wrong if we call it 6 days 12 hours. She of all proportion to the result gained. If burns 320 tons of coal per day of 24 such a ship as the “Etruria" can be hours, or, making allowance for getting made to pay her way, then the profit up steam, etc., about 2,250 tons of coal earned by such a vessel as the Servia" on the trip. She makes the passage in a must be very large, while that earned by





the “Britannic" ought to be colossal. ease, and invalids from all parts of the We believe that the truth lies between hemisphere, especially consumptive, are the two statements, and that the fastest sent here to recuperate at any time of ships in the Atlantic trade are partly sup year. In short, the ancient mountain ported out of the earnings of their slower town, where-alike at all seasons-brilsisters. Mr. John has Linted that the ex. liant birds sing litanies and flowers wave press Atlantic steamer of the future will perfumed censors, is the quaintest and carry no cargo; and this, we think, is loveliest spot on the continent

The vamore than probable. If any ship is built nilla bean, with its valuable extract and to beat the “Etruria," it is clear that volatile oil, is indigenous to the locality there will be no space left for cargo- and thrives in especial luxuriance in engines, boilers and coal demanding every these evergreen forests that hide the anton of displacement available.

cient cities of the Totonaca, who supplied the article to the Aztec kings 400

years ago. Some curious researches have recently been made by Swiss and Swedish physicians on the color of the eyes, but without

Pavesi recommends a liniment comany apparent purpose. For convenience posed of camphorated chloral 24parts, all eyes were divided as blue or brown, the pure głycerine 1672 parts, and oil of sweet various shades of gray eyes being classified almonds 10 parts. This is to be well according to the prominence of blue or closed bottle. A pledget of very soft

mixed and preserved in a hermetically brown in their color. Some of the con- cotton is to be soaked in the liniment and clusions from a great many observations then introduced as far as possible into the are these: That women with brown eyes affected ear, two applications being made have better prospects of marriage than those with blue; that the average number

daily. Frictions may also be made each of children is greater with parents whose day with the preparation behind the ear.

It is claimed that the pain is almost imeyes are dissimilar. In children both of whose parents have blue eyes, ninety- cases the inflammation is subdued.

mediately relieved, and even in many three per cent. inherit blue eyes; but in cases the inflammation is subdued. children both of whose parents have brown eyes, only eighty per cent, have Common salt is the most widely disbrown eyes.

The above results were tributed substance in the body; it exists reached in Switzerland. In Sweden the in every fluid and every solid; and not discoveries were not quite the same. The only is everywhere present, but in almost women there with brown eyes were more every part it constitutes the largest pornumerous than the men with brown eyes, tion of the ash when any tissue is burnt. but brown eyes are apparently increasing In particular it is a constant constituent of there as in Switzerland.

the blood, and it maintains in it a proportion that is almost wholly independent of the quantity that is consumed with the food. The blood will take up so much

and no more, however much we may take Few cities in the world are su favor with our food; and, on the other hand, ably situated as Jalapa, preserving eter- if noue be given, the blood parts with nal summer, with little change of at- its natural quantity slowly and unwillmosphere, from year to year, yet suffi- ingly. Under ordinary circumstances, ciently elevated to escape the baneful a healthy man loses daily about twelve vapors of the tierra caliente (hot lands) grains by one channel or the other, and which it overlooks. It is par excellence if he is to maintain his health, that quana paradise for the artist, the naturalist, tity is to be introduced. Common salt; the hunter and the health seeker, and is is of immense importance in the processes. the loveliest of_resorts, both for winter ministering to the nutrition of the body, and summer. People from the far north for not only is it the gastric juice, and come down here to escape the winter's essential for the formation of bile, and cold; the citizens of Vera Cruz, Cordova, may hence be reasonably regarded as of and other fever-haunted districts come up bigh value in digestion, but it is an innin summer time to enjoy the refreshing portant agent in promoting the processes breezes and secure immunity from dis. I of diffusion and therefore of absorption.



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