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so, having received on both cheeks the fare. well salutation, and been loaded with final tokens of friendship in the shapes of fruits and flowers, we took the evening train to Geneva, and while the mighty engine thundered through the solitudes of the valleys of the Jura, our thoughts serenely dwelt on the pleasures that had passed away.

D. P.



KING TARQUIN sat beside the open door,

Looking towards Soractè, as the west Stream'd forth its crimson on the marble floor,

Reddening the broider'd bands upon his vest, The gold that bound his brow and sandals

rimm'd; With a rich vintage splendour deluging, The sunset fill'd from out its vase-like globe

The new-built palace of the Roman King.


Waterloo, he again returned to the capital, and was present when the Allied Sovereigns entered Paris. An illness of some months, aggravated doubtless by anxiety of mind and the want of proper nourishment, now intervened ; and describing their situation in his own touching words, he observed, “At that time we were indeed very miserable—my poor mother and I—we had only potage (thin soup) to eat, and, my hopes of advancement sbattered, I knew not what to do."

Driven to seek employment, he at length became connected with a commercial house, and in its service went as travelling clerk to Germany, in which country he met with the lady his present partner, whom he married after waiting two years.

Once launched in the commercial world, good fortune attended his steps, and from these small beginnings he has become one of the most distinguished merchants of France. Universally honoured in the city which he has made the chief seat of his commercial transactions, his name is well known and respected everywhere in his country, and in Europe generally, in many of whose principal cities he has branch establishments. And in this instanice

success has attended the enterprise of one well worthy of the smiles of fortune. Of a generous and unprejudiced nature, this noble man with his enlarged sympathies can see good in other nationalities beyond his own, and is ready to adopt improvements from whatever quarter they may come.

An ardent lover of his country, he also loves England, her institutions, and her language, which he understands idiomatically. It will be supposed that such a one rejoices in the removal of those impediments which have until recently fettered the development of the commercial relations between the two great nations of Europe, towards which he has mainly contributed. In the mutual interchange of commodities and manufactures, and in the friendly union and brotherhood, he sees the highest security for the peace of the European world, and for their own internal prosperity.

Not without regret on either side came the parting word, Adieu ! For me, the novelty of the life had its attractions, which the added charms of courtesy and hospitality rendered the more seductive.

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But Switzerland was before us, and we had formed extensive plans for travel, to be accomplished within a limited period ; and we resisted the solicitations of our friends to tarry longer on our way. Railways, even in Switzerland, now facilitate the movements of the tourist ;

Another twilight, and again she came

Gliding from out the brightness without sound. Only three books were left; the envious fire Had shrunk the precious board. Tbe Gabiads

bound Cower'd before scornful Tarquin's all-consuming

wrath ; The Sibyl laid the books upon his throne, Drew her thick bood over her wrinkled face,

And stood like Niobe new turned to stone.

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AN AUTUMN DAY AT WINCHILSEA. Whilst stayiny, a few weeks since, in the History of Embanking.' The bearings indineighbourhood of Hastings, an antiquarian cate a place immediately on the east side of friend suggested to me by chance that I should the east pier-head of Rye harbour, constituting find a great treat, and some occupation for a the Camber farm estate, which lies in the pleasant autumn day, in an excursion to the parish of St. Thomas, Winchilsea, and was ancient city of Winchilsea, distant some eight probably either the site, or adjoining the site, miles by road or by rail. Accordingly, I made of the original town. Norden, in his Preface my way by rail to that famous place,-nearly, to the ‘History of Cornwall,' published in that is, but not quite ; for the Winchilsea ! 1724, says “the ruins thereof now lie under station is in the salt marshes which lie between the waves three miles within the high sea.' the town and Udimore ; and I found the Tradition gives the same site, and report has serpentine road, which led me to the foot of spoken of ruins there found. A survey of the the hill on which Winchilsea is built, a walk bay of Rye, however, has not brought any not much short of a quarter of an hour's such ruins to light ; the better opinion seems duration.

to be that the ground, which was submerged I should here remark that, although I have at the latter part of the 13th century, began called Winchilsea an ancient " city, a great partially to reappear towards the end of the distinction must be drawn between the present 15th or the beginning of the 16th, was town and what an antiquary would recognise gradually recovered and fenced-in up to the as “old " Winchilsea. The site of the latter close of the 17th century, and is now a fine place was a low flat island, some three miles rich alluvial soil." south-east of the high hill on which the present Be this, however, as it may, it is certain town stands, at what was then the mouth of that in the Saxon era of our history Winchilthe river Rother. But here, as at Yarmouth * sea became a place of great importance, as one and Shoreham, the action of the sea has so of the chief ports on the south-eastern coast. changed the outline of the coast during the We shall leave it to etymologists to decide last ten or twenty centuries, that it is almost the precise meaning of its name, and espeimpossible to identify the site with precision. cially to settle the point as to how far the This much, however, is certain, that “the words “ Friget mare ventus,” are or are not old town was separated from most of the an exact Latin equivalent for Wind-chils-sea. adjoining localities by a wide waste of waters,” Chill, we all know, without Mr. Jeake's assistand that “the path to it on every side except ance, is a term “yet in use for cold ;” and the west, was over a large estuary.”+

“ well ” (he writes) “ might the old town deGeographers are no less puzzled as to the serve that name, standing, as it did, in a low exact site of old Winchilsea than etymologists place open to both the winds and the sea.” It are to account for its name. According to is quite possible, as a local antiquary, Mr. Mr. Cooper, it is a matter of doubt whether Holloway, suggests, that the name originally the town existed at all at the me of the meant “Wind-cold-island,” or “ Cold-windRoman Conquest.

“ Camden,” he writes, island;” but after all, it is to be feared that “ does not lay it down in his maps of Roman our present knowledge of etymology is such or cien of Saxon Britain : in his map of that we must leave the knotty question for Sussex he gives it under the Roman name of another generation to solve. Vindelis, I with the addition "Old Winchilsea drowned, but that name would be more cor- | It is curious that Winchilsea is not menrectly given to the islo of Portland. Jeake tioned by name in either the Saxon Chronicle or tells us that it was reported by Johnson in in Domesday ; but it is matter of history that his Atlas, to have been a city in the time of King Edgar had a mint here in A.D. 959, and the Romans.' In Gough's edition of Camden, that the town was of sufficient importance in and in the Map of Ancient Britain, published the time of Edward the Confessor to be granted by the Society for Diffusing Useful Knowledge, to the monks of Féchamp in France : and the the harbour is given as Portus Novus. The monks were not usually the men to take anyspot, however, on which the old town stood is thing of inferior quality under their special marked in the map given by Dugdale in his protection.

At the time of the Conquest, before Dover * See Vol. ix., p. 276, and Vol. xl., p. 254. + “The History of Winehilsea," by W. D. Cooper, F.S.A.,

had risen into note, Winchilsea was one of


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the most convenient ports for passengers to Butler, in his “Atlas of Ancient Britain," also gives this as the site of Vindelis.

embark at en route to and from France,

p. 1.

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William the Conqueror chose it as the place was the passage of the Rhine among the castles of his landing in the year after the battle of the mediæval nobles." In fact they beof Hastings, thereby defeating the measures came, not only pirates as bold and shameless which had been adopted for shaking off the as those of the Ægean in Homer's days, * but Norman yoke.

Henry II. is said to have so disaffected to the crown withal, that Henry landed here in 1188 ; before the end of was obliged to take the town into his own the twelfth century, it had become “ well- royal hands, giving the French monks, in frequented,” according to Camden ; or, in ' exchange, other lands, which those far-seeing the phraseology of Kilburne," a pretty town,

a pretty town, and crafty gentlemen selected in a situation and much resorted to ;” or, in Norden's not quite so likely to be destroyed by the words, “a town of great trade and accompt.' ravages of the ocean as the “ Island of Cold Tradition, too, puts its seal on the above Winds." assertions by reporting to the present day The town, as we bave said, was doomed. that it once had in it no less than fifty inns The monks had the best of the bargain. Hardly and taverns.

had three years passed by after this exchange Together with its neighbour, Rye, Win- was effected when a furious storm arose (Oct. 1, chilsea was added by the Conqueror to the 1250), which did fatal injury to Winchilsea. Cinque Ports, and in the first year of king Against foreign enemies the brave men of that John the two towns are mentioned as “bound ' place could hold their own ; but they could to aid Hastings in doing service to the navy.” not combat the elements, when the sea and the The old town appears to have reached the very “ stars in their courses fought against height of its glory in John's reign, when its them. bay was the place of rendezvous for the fleet The storm is this recorded by Hollinshed :of England. Its commerce, more particularly

“On the 1st day of October, the moon, upon in the wine trade, was most extensive, and her change, appearing exceeding red and its position, opposite to Tréport, and not swelled, began to show tokens of the great far out of the direct line to Boulogne, gave tempest of wind that followed, which was so it such importance that the king brought high and mighty, both by land and sea, that over thither a large army from Dover to oppose the like had not been lightly known, and selthe invasion of Louis the son of Philip of dom or rather never heard of, by men then France, who was bent on securing the English alive. The sea, forced contrary to its natural crown under the kind auspices and patronage course, flowed twice without ebbing, yielding of Pope Innocent III. King John was not such a roaring that the same was heard (not a very creditable sovereign ; but the value without great wonder) a far distance from the which he set on Winchilsea may be gathered shore. Moreover the same sea appeared in the from the fact that he issued a writ authorising dark of the night to burn, as it had been on the payment of a ransom of two hundred fire, and the waves to strive and fight together marks rather than that it should be burnt after a marvellous sort, so that the mariners or sacked. It seems probable that Winchilsea could not devise how to save their ships where was attacked by and successfully resisted the they lay at anchor, by no cunning or shift invader, though Rye was actually captured which they could devise. At Hertburne three by Louis in the following year, when the tall ships perished without recovery, besides men of Winchilsea distinguished themselves smaller vessels. At Winchilsea, besides other in a naval engagement between the French hurt that was done in the bridges, mills, breaks, and the fleet of the Cinque Ports under Sir and banks, there were 300 houses and some Hubert de Burgh.

churches drowned with the high rising of the But the days of the prosperity of old Win- water course.” + chilsea were drawing to a close. What agencies

The second inundation which desolated Old may have been at work we know not, but about Winchilsea is thus described by Stow :-“A.D. the year 1235 great damage is said to have 1250. In October the sea, flowing twice been done at Winchilsea by violent storms and without ebbe, made so horrible a noise, yt it was floods, though the lighthouse and the “arsenal heard a great way into England. Besides this, for the king's galleys," were standing some ten in a darke night, ye sea seemed to be on a light years later,

There is an old proverb which fire, and the waves to fight one with another, says, “Quem Deus vult perdere, prius de- so that the mariners were not able to save mentat," and the inhabitants of the doomed

their ships.

And at Winchilsea, besides cotcity seem to have betaken themselves to piracy tages for salt, and fishermen's houses, bridges of the most lawless kind, so as “ to render the and mills, about 300 houses in that towne, passage of the narrow seas,” in Mr. Cooper's

* Sce“ Thucydides," h. I., chap. iv. words, as dangerous to commercial traffic as

| Hollinshed, Vol. 11., p. 419.

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with certaine churches, through the violent Edward I., had foreseen the end of Old Winrising of the sea, were drowned."*

chilsea, and had resolved on transplanting the Matthew of Paris tells us that on the octave town, or at least on building elsewhere a rival of the Epiphany, in 1252, there was a terrible to its name. storm, which made great havoc along the

Certus enim promisit Apollo Kentish coast, and “more especially at the

Ambiguam tellure novâ Salamina futuram. Port of Winchilsea, which is of such use to

Guided by the advice of John Kirkeby, Bishop England, and above all to the inhabitants of of Ely and Treasurer of England, the king chose London. The waves of the sea broke its banks, as the site of his new town an uneven sandswelling the neighbouring rivers, knocked down stone rock, then used as a rabbit warren, the mills and the houses, and carried away a which even then was more than half an island, number of drowned men. And at the close of and had only gradually become joined to terra the following year the sea again broke its firma by the receding of the sea from the bounds, and left so much salt upon the land marshes south of Icklesham, of which parish that, in the autumn of 1254, the wheat and it formed a part. A ferry on the north-west other crops could not be gathered as usual ; side led to Battle, and so on to London. and even the forest trees and hedges could not One hundred and fifty acres were selected. put out their full foliage.”

The rough summit of the rocky peninsula was The men of Winchilsea, however, were not levelled artificially into table land. The king deterred by these judgments from their crimes. At all events, in 1266, young Simon de Montfort having joined their bands of pirate-rovers, Prince Edward resolved to make a terrible example of them. They had given loose to their old habits, and urged on by the countenance of Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, they had adopted the practice of flinging overboard the crews of every ship which they met on the high seas, whether English or foreign, Leicester taking a share of the booty and winking at their atrocities. Prince Edward, therefore, attacked the town, and took it by storm, putting to death all of the leading inhabitants who were implicated in such misdeeds. The punishment was severe and complete, and the town never again flourished. The last stroke to its fall, however, was put by a terrible storm in 1287, which broke down the sea wall for miles along the coast, changed the mouth of the Rother, and rendered Winchilsea unfit for residence. Thenceforth it became deserted, and in a few years the waves had swept it

Strand Gate, Winchilsca. clean away, and “ the place thereof knew it no more.

issued a commission to Ralph de Sandwich, his The old town, according to Stow, Dug- steward, ordering him to give sites for building dale, and Leland, contained some religious in the new town to the dispossessed inhabithouses, including a house of the Franciscans ants of Old Winchilsea, and confirming by and a hospital of St. Bartholomew, and also two charter to the new settlement all the rights and churches, dedicated respectively to St. Thomas privileges of the old one. The new town was and St. Giles. With it were connected the laid out quadrilaterally, the whole of its four ancient families of Alard and Paulin, the former sides being strongly fortified with walls of of consequence in Saxon times ; and Robert de stone, and with four strong gates at the angles, Winchilsea, Archbishop of Canterbury, under three of which are standing to the present day, the first Edwards, a prelate of great force of Above is an engraving of one of these, called character and of the fiercest ultramontane the Strand Gate, the view through which from principles, is recorded in history as a native of the iuside presents us with a lovely picture of the town.

the quaint and picturesque old town of Rye, As far back as A.D. 1277 (ten years before with its red roofs seen against the sky at the its final overthrow), that long-sighted king, distance of some three or four miles across • “English Chronicles Abridged.” Ed. 1611, p. 94.

the marshes. Near the Land Gate, or Pipe



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