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“Guilty ;
so they were discharged, and the

and motives of the person through whose hands prisoner remanded to the next sessions. Mean

the poisoned cheese had last passed was thus time, Samuel Hinds was appointed Attorney- cast aside, and this being not received, the General. When the sessions arrived (December, poor dancing-master returned to prison without 1824), Mr. Hinds declined to prosecute, on a hope. the ground of having formerly defended the

Here is a copy of his death warrant. prisoner, so the prosecution devolved upon Mr. Solicitor-General Griffith. The jury were em

GEORGE THE Fourth, by the Grace of God, of the panelled, the evidence and all other proceedings

United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, &c. carried on from the last sessions were read over

To our Provost- Marshal of our said Island of Barladoes,

or his lawful deputy, greeting: to them, and after a short deliberation they

WHEREAS Michael Harvey Peter William Henry brought in a verdict of " Guilty.”

D’Egville, late of the parish of St. Micbael, in the Extract from the minute-book of the Court island aforesud, yeoman, now detained in your custody of Grand Sessions held Dec. 17th, 1824:

in our gaol of our said island, was, at a Court of Grand

Sessions of Oyer and Terminer, General Gaol Delivery, Michael Harvey Peter William Henry D’Egville was and General Sessions of the Peace, held for the body of then brought up and set to the bar to receive judgment; our said island, and begun on Tuesday, the fourteenth when, upon being asked if he had anything to say. why day of December, one thousand eight bundred and sentence of death should not be passed upon him, he twenty-four, and so continued and held by special addelivered in a paper writing, signed by himself and journment de die in diem, on the fourteenth, fifteenta, Mr. Moore, as his counsel, protesting, "alleging,' and ' sixteerith, and seventeentli days of the said month, at pleading that he, the said D'Egville, was put on his the Town Hall, in the intish of St. Michael, in our trial at a former sessions for the same offence, and, island aforesaid, indicted and arraigned for the murder therefore, prayed that judgment might be arrested and of Susanna D'Egville, and thereupon was tried, constayed against him. Mr. Attorney-General Hinds ob- victed, and, in due form of law attainted, and now jected to the same, on the ground that the former trial stands adjudged unto death, of which judgment execu. was not complete, inash uch as no verdict was rendered, tion renains to be done. * We therefore corn mand, and and inasmuch as the prisoner had on the present trial" by these presents firmly enjoin you, that in and upon pleaded “not guilty," and put himself upon the country, Monday the fourteenth day of this instant February, he was by that plea barred from any other.' The between the hours of nine and twelve in the forenoon opinion of the court being taken, the said paper writing of the same day, you carry the said M. H. P. W. H. was rejected, but the court declared themselves ready D'Egville to the place of execution within the gaol. to hear anything, by way of reasons in artest, which yard, in the town of St. Micbael, in our island aforethe prisoner or his counsel miglt think proper to offer, said, and there cause, him the said M. H. P. W. H. when Mr. Moore moved that the judgment in the D'Rgville to be hanged by the neck until he be dead, and cause of the “King r. M. H. P.'W. 11. D’EgTille" ble that this you fail n it to do upon peril thereon to ensue. arrested, on the following reasons, namely, because it ! Witne58.-His Excellency Sir Henry Wardé, K. Č.B., appears by the proceedings of the last Court of Grand * &c., his Majesty's Captain-General and Governor, Sessions, holden for tbe body of this, island, in the Commander-in-Chief

, &c., of this island, de, at Gomonth of June last, in the 'Town Hall, in Bridgetown, vernment House, this seventh day of February, in the in the said Island of Barbadoes, that the said M. H. sixth year of our reign. P. W. H. D'Egville was arraigned on an indictment

117.1 Sigvied)

HENRT WARDE. preferred against him by our Sovereign Lord the King for the murder by poison of his wife Susanna D'Egville, This warrant was duly carried into effect. whereto he pleaded “not guišty,” and that a jury

Il ii of twelve men was em panelled, sworn, and charged to try, and he, the said M. H. P. W. H. D'Egville, was

W. H. D'Egville was. Some years afterwards, when D’Egville's actually put on his trial on the said indictment for the namo: was forgotten,.. negro man who had said offence, and whereto he, by his counsel, entered been a slave in the possession of Mrs.D'Egville, upon, disclosed, and made his defence;, and further, and who was, by her father's will, to receive because that the said jury, so sworn, er panelled, and his manumission, confessed that he had received charged to try him, the said M. H. P. W. H. D'Egville, afterwards actually retired and went out to the petit

the cheese from the mulatto boy. and had put jury-room, and remained several hours deliberating on in the arsenic, as he was aware that his freetheir verdict; and further, because the offence whereof. dom was to follow upon his mistress's death. he hath been tried at the present sessions, and the

The link wanting (as the learned counsel oboffence for which he was put on trinl, as before mentioned, at the Second Court of Grand Sessions, in the

served), namely, what had passed between the month of June last, are one and the same offence, and

time the cheese was put out of D'Eg ville's not divers, which said reasons being taken into the hands and its delivery into those of his wife, serious consideration of the court, were rejected, and

was now supplied. Thę, negro's name was sentence of death was accordingly pronounced.

Christian, and he went, as was usual, by the This extract shows the procedure of the family namo. of Llewellyn. All this he concourt (which was acting upon the condemnatory fessed upon his death-bed, to the great discomevidence alone) to have been crippled by the fiture of those who had condemned the wretched absence of the one link in the evidence excul- dancing-master, and to the shame of the system patory, viz., the testimony of the mulatto boy of refusing any, evidence, though from negro who had been entrusted with the cheese. The lips, in a trial where life and death depended common precaution of inquiry into the conduct

upon evidence alone. R. REECE, Jun.

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BEFORE St. Eloi rose to saintship, and historian, " the thick woods were full," while he still lived in the flesh, he was much Other chroniclers mention that these wild like the rest of the world, save and except that places were also infested by “fierce bears.” he was very honest'; his integrity, in fact, was Under these adverse influences the power of the origin of his greatness. In those days he Christianity waned, and men sought to propiwas a working jeweller, and won the attention tiate the spirit of evil, the visible ruler of the of Clotaire the Second, King of France, by his world, -religion itself partook of the darkness honesty in respect to a certain lot of gold and of the age. No parish in the east of London precious stones which had been intrusted to was ever more in need of missionary efforts

Clotaire knew the value of such a than this district, to which the good St. Eloi man, and forthwith made him his minister. turned his steps. The wildest superstitions The office of premier is not generally the were rife in the country, successive conquests stepping-stone to saintship, but Eloi did his had indiscriminately united the races of north duty as best he could in those troublous times, and south, and the fables of diverse nations and the world recognised a good man even were confounded in one common sink of ignothen, and set him up as an example to his rance and superstition. The mysterious rites fellows. Had his influence obtained earlier, of the Druids still obtained a partial observhe would probably have prevented the king ance, while the cruel demi-gods of Scandinavia from taking such savage vengeance on Brun- divided with Baal and Jupiter the credit of hilda, the enemy of his mother and his house. ruling human destinies and of directing the This unfortunate woman, whose loves and powers of nature. Mingled in this rude and crimes are detailed in the “ Nibelungenlied," savage mass were remnants of a higher civiliwas subjected to, the cruelest tortures for sation, relics of the Roman possession. Nor was three days ; after which, she was tied to the Christianity itself utterly without its witnesses ; tail of a wild horse, and her wretched carcase a goodly leaven had been left by the early torn to pieces in the presence of the soldiers of missionaries of the Gospel, who had visited this the army. Society at this time was a chaos of country in the time of Constantine. savage, virtues and fierce vices, of warring St. Eloi most probably had helped to insticreeds and superstitious ignorance"; the domi- ' tute the order of Foresters, whose duty it was nating effect of brute force threatened the to assist the inhabitants of the 'Dunes in world with a return to barbarism ; but, suppressing the brigandage of their day. Deundaunted by the mass of evil, there were fended by this band of rural police, they some good men and true, who, like Eloi, began to re-establish themselves in bourgs and sought to maintain right against might. He villages, and resumed their agricultural purframed a code of laws, which, if well adminis-suits, not forgetting that in the old time the tered, would have averted from the throne of hams, and geese from this part of the world France the misfortunes which were brought had been sent to Rome, and had been voted about by the encroachment of the nobles and exquisite by the very gourmands at the Imthe weakness of the kings.

perial table. Clotaire died in 628, and Eloi, now become In the days of which we speak the configua churchman, turned his thoughts to prosely- ration of this sandy track was not exactly as it tising ; and accordingly he went to that part is now, it has suffered a sea change"; moreover, of the country which is called in the map of in the old time the inland parts were covered France the Département du Nord, but better with woods and marshes, the moëres have been known as French Flanders. In the early drained and the forests cut down, giving place times we speak of there were vast forests in to one of the most industrial departments of Flanders, where robbers and wild beasts took France. The waste places of creation were refuge. The more peaceable inhabitants of St. Eloi's special charge, and armed with the the country desired to be quit of these plagues, gospel and the authority of the Pope, he came and prayed the King of France to aid them in to convert the people. The fishermen on the their dire distress. A quaint old volume of coast listened with avidity to the preaching of local history by Faulconnier, printed at Bruges, the bishop, and flocked to be baptised. St. relates that in the year 618, Clotaire, who Eloi, greatly rejoiced at his success, forth with then governed the Low Countries, instituted commenced building a church on the Dune, in the order of Foresters, whose duty it was to the language of the time, Duyn kerk, hence exterminate the robbers, of which, says the the modern Dunkerque, notable in our own




No. 276.


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debtor and creditor accounts in the reign of the Christian symbol of the tree of life and the Charles the Second.

tree of the cross, may be proved by attentively One of the first sermons which St. Eloi examining the emblems used in the carved preached in the church of the Dunes has been pulpits of the Low Countries, especially at preserved, and is of great historical interest, as Brussels and Louvain. The eagle and the it forms a very curious picture of the supersti- squirrel retain their fabled position, and the tions of the time, --superstitions which were tree of life itself, from whose roots the serpent so deeply rooted in the minds of the people issues, closely resembles the ash. The populathat they may still be traced in the customs tion amongst which St. Eloi worked were and observances of the Dunkerquois. St. Eloi evidently peculiarly impressionable, as begins his homily by charging the newly going people always are: witness the frequency baptised to abstain from the sacrilegious cus- of the ex-voto offerings in the pilgrimage and toms of the pagans. “Do not,” he says, other chapels specially used by the maritime “ in any case of sickness consult enchanters or classes. The Christianity of this early period wonder workers, pay no regard to auguries or lent itself to the necessities of its new converts ; to divers ways of sneezing ; do not draw indica- the old beliefs would not yield entirely to the tions of the future from the songs of birds ; 'do | pure teachings of St. Eloi, but perpetuated not be careful about days, for all days are for

themselves in curious mediæval customs, some the work of God ; do not wait for such and such of which are still retained, such as the annual phuse of the moon ; do not take any part in procession at Furnés, near Dunkerque. And, the diabolical songs and dances practised on showing the permanence of tradition, there is St. John's day towards the epoch of the sol- at the latter place, at the time of the carnival, stice ; do not invoke the name of the Devil, an exhibition kept up representing a gigantic Neptune, Pluto

, or Diana ; do not stand idly figure called the Reuse, who is supposed to

" with your hands before you on Thursday; have fought for long years' against the Karles. you must not light lamps on the ruins of The people dance round the Reuse, and salute pagan temples, neither at fountains, nor at him in mockery; he is represented as devourthe meeting of four cross roads,; por conse

ing incredible' quantities of food, and to be crate your beasts to demons by making them furious if the people do not supply his inordipass through excavations in the earth. Women nate wants." This very probably expresses the must not hang round their necks pieces of long sustained' struggles between the nobles amber in pronouncing the name of Minerva ; and the commotis if the moon hides herself 'do call her back The first effects of Christianity in those ages by cries, do not swear by sun or moon; if any were of infinite importance to the people. infirmity attacks you, you must not run to Society was then composed of two elements

, magicians or enchanters, nor demand help from the strong'

ng and the weak, the conqueror and fountains, trees, or roads that cross ; do not the conquered, the "master and the serf, tho suffer any one


put images of feet in the oppressor and the oppressed:? Between these cross ways, if you find them throw them in the essentially hostile parties 'the Church interfire, and cut down the trees which the pagans posed. Fr Violence itself was stayed in the have called sacred.”. Who does not recognise presence of the altar or before the tomb of a in many of these things the origin of the lucky saint, the church became' a 'sanctuary, a very and unlucky omens of our day? It is curious help in the time of trouble, a power which to observe how superstitions are retained in rescued the weak, and put down the mighty the symbolic belief of nations ; names and from their seats. Under the shelter of the words are changed, but the thought has often sacred roof the poor hid the gatherings of their

' an older root than its received history. The scanty harvests ; 'it was their common barn, highly poetical idea among the Scandinavian wh

** the hungry

were filled with good races, that the great ash tree Yggdrasil repre- things." sented the universe, has been singularly inter- The relics of the saints, together with the woven with some of the mediæval traditions. | leechcraft of the monks, cured many of the This tree of the world was supposed to rise “ills that flesh is heir to." The angelica, the high above the hall of the triple Norns, under herba benedicta, and the vervain, sacred to the its roots was the cold land of Hela, the place Druids, were all cultivated with care by the of torture where dwelt the frost giants ; the priests, who thus made themselves the trustees middle earth was the land of men ; the far- of Nature's secrets, and became a help to the seeing eagle sits at the top, and Ratatosk the helpless. The sight of the toe-nail of St. squirrel runs up and down, the messenger of Nicholas, together with a decoction of blessed the eagle to the everlasting worm at the abyss. herbs, has cooled the fevered lips of many a That this idea has become mixed up with The shadow of the church had power to


o not



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Oct, 8, 1864.)

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stay even the heavy arm of justice, and the

Christ ons gemade-Kyrie eleison. still heavier arm of lawless cruelty. When

(Christ have pity on us.) St. Eloi built his church on the Dunes, he

At Dunkerque and the neighbourhood it is raised a sanctuary, round which his new.con

still the custom at the funeral of a young girl verts gladly gathered; he taught them, moreover , to make the best of this world, and place, singing the following words, partly in

to accompany her remains to their last restinginstructed them in many useful things, the Flemish, partly in Latin and Hebrew : art of cutting precious stones, and of working in gold and silver. He had agricultural

In Heaven is a fête,

Allelulia. theories, and some practical knowledge as a

The choir of virgins are ready for her, corrective ; hence it can be proved that there

Let us praise God, were substantial reasons for the love and

Allelulia. reverence which made the good St. Eloi the i

A saint enters her home, titular saint.of Dunkerque. 12

Let us praise God,

Let us turn to history, and see how the

rint place and people fared during the twelve cen. Thus singing, her young companions walk turies of his guardianship. :r 10 guilos son

with measured steps through the streets, holdHardly were the people settled in their new | ing the blue and white pall emblematic of the faith, when the Normans came down upon the Virgin. For a brief space the whirl of busy coast, pillaging the bourgs and desolating the traffic is stopped, and

mith uncovered heads country. The Liturgy of the day included the passers-by listen to the riuging strain,

, . this

prayer, “ From the fury of the Normans, which has all that wild sad charm of mediæval deliver us, good Lord," Yun limizgatr


the mingling of bitterness with triumph, In the tenth century the churches were de

the wail of sorrow lost in infinite sweetness, stroyed and the monasteries reduced to ashes, that something vague, nameless and penetratbut the recollection of St. Eloi's teachings ing, which once heard comes back to us again kept the faithful together; they made chapels and again, as the echo from another world underground, and worshipped there to avoid than ours. the Northern pagans. , At length the Marquis In 1440 the Dunkerquois built St. Eloi a

a of Flanders built a wall round the church, and

11, hatim
new church.

Since the when the good


saint was with them in the flesh, the fishermen the town which had grown up near; it. And from this time the history of the place became

ad agreed to keep a net which should be identified with the church; all the - notable called the holy net;" the produce of this events, civil, religious, or military, were in one,

was always devoted to repairing the church; way or another associated with the shrine of hence it came about, that notwithstanding the St. Eloi. The flags, for, twenty-seven ships

devastations of those terrible English, and the destined for the Crusades were blessed, at it

this rapine and wrong of nearer neighbours, the altar, and their crows made up of the sturdy shrine of St. Eloi always maintained its matefishermen of the portes i'itari Visi

rial importance. It would have been well for Christendom if

"Les Dunkerquois avaient cu tant de maîtres, there had always been a common enemy, but qu'ils croyaient appartenir à tout le monde," national antipathies began to arise. Accord. says one of their historians. And if we call ing to Froissart, Spencer, Bishop of Norwich, up in review before us the personages who conducted an attack upon Dunkerque in the have knelt in succession before the high altar time of Richard the Third. He is reported to of St. Eloi's shrine, it will form a most curious have said “that there could not be better panorama of change and mutation." pleasure and profit than taking the rich town In the time of the Austrian possession, of Dunkerque." But the Flemish hated the Philip le beau came to Dunkerque to receive French worse than the English, for an old the ambassadors of Henry the Seventh of proverb says, “If all the Flemish were dead, Eugland ; and later, the church doors

open their bones would gather together against the welcome the gorgeous pageant which attends French.” The Church, associated itself with Charles the Fifth ; the streets are planted with every popular movement, and whether it was trees, under whose shadow pass the vast St. Bernard preaching the Crusade, or whether assemblage of German and Flemish lords, of it was a gatliering of townsfolk against some public functionaries, cannoneers, archers, crossneighbouring bourg, the consecrated banner bowmen, priests, monks, and núns, bearing was lifted on high, and crowds rushed together the relics of each convent. singing the “Kyrie eleison," which even now But evil days followed. In 1558 Count forms the refrain of every Flemish song. The Egmont comes to the rescue of the Dunkerline is :

quois, who had fallen into the hands of the

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French soldiery, “who," says the chronicler, Spanish in the morning, French at noon, and

regarded neither the prayers of the people English at night. nor the sanctity of the holy places.” Even It does not appear that Cromwell and St. St. Eloi's shrine was pillaged, the church fur. Eloi ever hit it off well together, though there niture destroyed, and the bells, carried off. was much civil talking between their followers However, peace was restored to Dunkerque by of liberty of conscience, A group of surly the issue of the battle of Gravelines. In Puritans stood by the altar while the represen1588 the imposing ceremony of blessing the tative Dunkerquois swore to be faithful to his flags for a portion of the “Invincible Armada” Serene Highness Oliver, Lord Protector of the took place at St. Eloi's shrine ; for the faithful Republic of England, and his successors, etc, it was a grand spectacle, but t this time the We shall see further on that the Dunkerquois saint's blessing availed but little. Some mate had great powers of swearing and praising God rial help was given by Dunkerque in the shape for new masters. , : The restoration of the of two pilots, who conducted the allattered Stuarts was duly celebrated by a "Te Deum” remnants of the Armada back to Spain. at Dunkerque, and still greater rejoicings took

The fleeting years pass on, and none but place two years later, when Charles the Second St. Eloi and the dear God who loveth ... I basely sold the place for French gold.

These were palmy days for saintship and All things both great and small-,

township. Louis the Fourteenth completed hath taken note of the tears that have been the fortifications, and thrice within a few shed and the vows that were breathed day by years he knelt in great state before St. Eloi's day before that altar ; like the leaves of the altar, Jean Bart, sometime captain of this, forest are the generations of men !, Only when nest of pirates, but now Admiral of the Fleet, some misfortune befalls a people does the great is by his side ;-a Viking of the old stamp was scene painter History give us a picture, and this said Jean Bart, 2, picture of, whose statue. here is one.

Early in the seventeenth century I only wish I could transfer into these pages.. the church doors are flung wide open to admit He, and James the Second reviewed together, a penitential procession ; this is no gay pageant, on Dunkerque quay the, fleet, which was

, , , , no welcome to king or kaiser ; they come wail- intended to reconquer the exile's, throne. ing and weeping, in sad and solemn guise But,” says the , historian, the tempests, invoking St. Eloi to stay that terrible scourge, always seem at the command of the English.” the pest, which is desolating their town. But A worthier member of kingcraft is the next of time passes, the children who followed on the the notables seen at Dunkerque. Peter the skirts of this wailing crowd are grown old and Great goes to hear, mass at the church, but he feeble, and are hurrying to the church' tower ; | gets this matter quickly over, for, his thoughts they look down to see how fares it with their are far away with the ships and the fortifica. sons, who are fighting the Battle of the Dunes. tions.

1:17'nin Marshal Turenne, reinforced by Cromwell's During the next fifty years or so, the royal men under Lockhart, was opposed to 25,000 marriages and christenings of the House of Spaniards. A looker-on exclaims, fight like angels, the English like me French Bourbou, were duly celebrated. There were

of The result of the battle is told in the following

son of Louis the Sixteenth, but the shouts of characteristic note which Turenne writes to his Vive le Roi.” had hardly, died away; when wife on the evening of that memorable day :- other sounds arose, and the walls of the church.

were placarded with complaints against the The enemy came to us. We have beaten them. public functionaries, violent invectives about the God be praised. Rather tired-- Good night. 'I'm off to bed.

state of the national finances, and much general

discontent not understood at the time, but now Our Cromwell, too, had a terse style of writing, known as the precursor of an earthquake. not unworthy of imitation in these days. The air becomes more and more dense, aud When it transpired thathenis Fresh

French wanted to what is it now we see ? A.vast crowd congrekeep Dunkerque for themselves, he informed gated before the altar, the national guard, the the French ambassador that if the town was municipality, the clergy, the, sans-culottes

, not given up an hour after it was taken, they together taking an oath by Dieu, Patrie, should see Lockhart himself, with an English Fraternité,” to do something the world has ariny, at the gates of Paris... The Grand never done before. There is much excitement; Monarque bowed with infinite grace, quite in it is the 29th of September, 1791, a "Te the old court manner, and gave up the town. Deum” is being sung in honour of the constiDunkerque is a solitary instauce of a place tution authorised by, Louis the Sixteenth. belonging to three different powers in one day | Mark well this “Te Deum,” listen to the

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