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screen, Near to this screen is a small circular We remember having seen, some years ago, table, turning upon a pivot, and divided round at an exhibition of the Photographic Society, its circumference into twenty-four parts, similar a marble bust executed entirely from phototo the large (sitter's) platform. Upon this graphs ; but this was entirely an artist's work, little table is placed a block of modeller's clay, and was exhibited as a curiosity. A Hatton of sufficient size to allow of a bust or statuette Garden modeller lately assured the writer that of the required dimensions being cut from it ; | he had satisfactorily modelled busts from a and between it and the screen is mounted a single photograph, and offered to produce, at a large pantograph, furnished at one end with week's notice, an accurate bust from a good the customary style or tracer, but with a sharp photograph at a cost of thirty shillings, and to tool or cutter occupying the place of the pen supply any number of copies (casts) of it for or pencil. Photograph, pantograph, and clay two shillings per copy. But the photograph block being adjusted to their proper positions, in this case would be employed as any other the operator carefully guides the style over the drawing might be, and would not be mechaoutline of the enlarged photograph, and the nically connected with the production of the cutting tool, exactly following every motion of model ; and it is this mechanical co-operation the style, cuts the clay into a profile exactly of the photograph, ensuring faithful accuracy corresponding to that of the photograph, and in the resulting figure, that forms the basis of hence exactly similar to the contour of the M. Willème's invention. original model or sitter as seen from the point At present the price of photo-sculptures, aloccupied by caméra No. 1. Photograph No. 2 though low in proportion to that of other deis then substituted for No. 1 in the lantern, scriptions of sculpture, is rather too high to the little turntable with the clay block is turned allow of their becoming extensively popular; through one of its twenty-four divisions, and but we may hope that when the process shall the outline of the second photograph similarly have become established in this country, and traversed by the style and transferred to the the demand for cheap productions become clay. Photograph No. 3 is treated in the same general, some means of simplifying the operamanner, and so on until all the photographs tions, or economising the labour of conducting have passed in succession through the lantern them, will be devised, and that photo-sculpture and been transmuted, in their proper positions will be brought within the reach of all classes. to the clay, which, by the end of the opera- Apart from the beauty and novelty of phototion, stands upon its table an accurate repro- sculpture, there is one especial reason why we duction of the sitter on the platform ! All that hail with pleasure the generalisation of M. then remains to be done is to smooth down Willème's art. Every one who possesses valuthe rough outlines left by the cutter, and the able or precious photographs at times has miswork is finished. This last operation requires givings as to their permanency. Photographs the assistance of an artist, and is the only part have acquired a bad name for durability.

As of the whole process that demands any more we look over our portfolios and albums we see skill than is required in the most ordinary photographs, once forcible and vigorous, bemechanical operations. The time occupied is coming pale and bilious-looking; and wherewonderfully short, compared with the tedious ever this is the case it may be safely predicted process of modelling a bust from the life, to that such pictures will sooner or later entirely say nothing of the disagreeable operation, often fade. There is nothing in the chemical conresorted to, of taking a plaster cast of the face stitution of the photographic image, formed as to serve as a basis for the sculptor's work. The 'it is by the combination of the precious metals, bust or statuette once obtained can be easily gold and silver, to give rise to any apprehenmultiplied by the ordinary means in use for sions as to its permanency ; but there is ample producing plaster images, or it may be copied room for doubt as to whether the processes of into marble or bronze to suit the taste and its production are carried on with the requisite purse of its possessor. By varying the ine- care and caution to secure stability. The last chanical arrangements it may be produced of process through which a photograph passes (the colossal size, or diminished to an inch in height. fixing process) leaves it impregnated with a deBy slight modifications of the process, the structive chemical ; and the removal of all traces portrait may be flattened to the proportions of of this chemical constitutes one of the photoa medallion or bas-relief, or cut into a seal or grapher's worst difficulties, To do it effectually die, and at the will of the operator may even requires the photograph to be soaked for a be distorted to yield a grotesque figure or whole day in a good body of water, which must caricature.

be constantly agitated and changed. Now we The application of photography to the re- very much fear, and the frequent sight of quirements of the sculptor is not entirely new. fading photographs corroborates our suspicions --that professional photographers do not pay At the present day the City Companies are only enough attention to this important particular. shadows of what they were in the past ; indeed Doubtless the more scientific and more scru- they are little better than chartered associapulous among them—jealous of their personal tions for the distribution of the splendid patronreputation and that of their art, and kuowing age left to them by past generations, and the danger of insufficient washing, -are careful trustees for almsgiving on a very splendid scale. to guard against the evil ; but a large propor- Out of the eighty-two companies which still tion, by far the majority, of the horde of struggle to keep their heads above water, there "photographic artists,” are totally ignorant of are only a very few that may be termed workthe rationale of their process, and innocent as ing companies, or companies still possessing a child of the nature of the materials they use. trade privileges. There is the Goldsmiths' ComFrom this cause we dare venture to predict pany, which still possess the right of assaying that before the lapse of half a dozen years two- all the gold and silver manufactured, and of thirds of the contents of our much-prized carte stamping on these metals the hall mark; the de visite albums will have lost their beauty, Apothecaries, who sell drugs in their hall, and and in many cases have become obliterated possess the right of entering shops within their altogether. The propensity of a photograph to jurisdiction and testing for adulterations; the fade cannot always be detected by its appear- Stationers, who claim a certain superintendance ; for in many cases the presence of the ence over the booksellers ; and the Paintervicious chemical only serves to give additional stainers, a company at the present moment brilliancy to the picture, just as the germ of a exhibiting some spasmodic action in the way of fatal disease suffuses beauty over the counte- an exhibition of works of their craftsmen ; and nance of its victim. Photographers have for a finally the Gunsmiths, who possess the privilege long time been seeking for some process of of trying all the London-made guns. Beyond multiplying their works without the use of these, the companies mainly maintain their jeopardising chemicals ; but although several existence on good dinners, loving cups, and methods have been successfully tried, no one the power of giving good things away, includ. has as yet been able to supersede the process ing twelfth-night cakes to themselves annually, that necessitates their employment. Now, at handsome fees for attendance, and certain old all events, the difficulties of obtaining a per. ceremonies in the manner of the election of manent as well as an accurate portrait are their officers, which we shall allude to preovercome ; for if pbotographs perish, drawings sently-healthy exercises these, calculated to fade, and paintings tarnish with the lapse of extend their longevity to an indefinite period. years, at least the sculptured portrait will with. Of course there are very few veritable tradesstand the ravages of devouring Time. The men to be found among them; for instance, accurate delineation of the photograph will be the Mercers, that stands first among the twelve combined with the durability of the marble great companies, cannot count, a single member statue ; and thus M. Willème's invention will of the craft among its livery ! What pretence afford us the blessing of “an art that can im- the Bowyers and the Fletchers have had to mortalise."

J. CARPENTER. call themselves a trade, except it be that of

toy-makers, since the days of Queen Bess, we THE CITY COMPANIES.

cannot tell.

The Pinmakers, thirty years ago, were reThe public are now and then informed that duced to two members, who have long since, some great personage has become a fishmonger. we suppose,

been gathered to their fathers ; the The Prince of Wales became a member of that Musicians, the Inn-keepers, and the Masons, wet profession not long since ; and people are indeed all the minor companies who are not astonished to find, when any civic election is supported by large funded property handed going on in the City, how many spectacle- down to them, are virtually defunct. makers are among the candidates ; indeed, if “twelve," however, will never willingly die so we were to judge from their number, we might long as they have money in the funds, and the imagine that Londoners suffered from very im- power of distributing it. Their names, and perfect eyesight. It is all very well for princes the order in which they staud, are as folto play at being tradesmen ; but it is no mere lows :—The Mercers, Grocers, Drapers, Fishoptical delusion that our merchants, ambitious mongers, Goldsmiths, Skinners, Merchant of filling the chair of the first magistrate, can Tailors, Haberdashers, Salters, Ironmongers, ouly do so by turning, by name at least, lens- Vintners, and Clothworkers. All of these maker, or craftsman of one or other of the companies still possess halls, stowed away City great Companies, which of old repre- mostly in narrow streets within the City limits, sented the trading greatness of the metropolis. unknown to fame. Two, however, form con

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spicuous objects—the Fishmongers' Hall, facing all. Looking at them as we do through the London Bridge, and the Goldsmiths' Hall, be haze of time, they all seem to have been hind the Post Office. Those who pass Cheapside more like “noble boys at play” than the daily are perhaps aware of a narrow façade discreet sad men they picture themselves to hemmed in between old-fashioned brick houses, have been. on which, over an iron gateway, two cherubs, In the early days, the palmy days of these that ought to be subjected to a course of guilds, The Hall was in truth the centre and Bantingism, sprawl in a condition of nudity. heart, as it were, of the craft to which it This is the entrance to the hall of the leading belonged. The various companies exercised company of Mercers.

These halls, like the almost despotic power over their members, companies themselves, have lost all their old especially over all matters relating to their grandeur and traditional character. The great trade. They made their rounds and saw that fire demolished the whole of them, with the ex- no member was adulterating his goods, or ception of the smaller halls of the Leather-sel- giving short weight or measure. The Drapers, lers, in Bishopsgate Street, and of the Carpenters, as well as the Merchant Tailors, used to have a at London Wall, which, however, give no indi- standard, or yard measure of silver, with which cations of the magnificence of those belonging they visited the city fairs where cloth was princito the great companies in early times. These pally sold, and measured off every man's bales. were fashioned out of the deserted niansions of The Grocers made the same scrutiny into the the nobility. Thus, the Grocers established shops of their craft, and doubtless prevented themselves in the town mansion of the Lords the pepper from being dusted, and the sugar Fitzwalter ; the Drapers' hall was the mansion from being sanded ; they also maintained a of Lord Cromwell. Both of these halls retain strict line of demarcation between different portions of their original fine gardens. The trades. The mercer sold silk mercery, and Salters’ hall was the town mansion of the Earls nothing more ; the haberdasher, haberdashery ; of Oxford. After the Reformation many of the vintners, wine ; and the beersellers, beer. the companies bought old religious houses, and, A man of the latter craft who should have with certain modifications, established them- posted up a placard outside of his door “old selves therein. The Leathersellers located crusty port at 3s. 9d.," would have been mulcted themselves in the nunnery of St. Helen's, and by his fellowship in a fine ; and if he insisted, the Pinners occupied the Austin-Friars' hall. he would have been turned out of the company. These old houses, fitted up with good old halls, When trades in the old time were mapped or chapels which were convertible into the out in this way they were also generally same purpose, afforded ample room for the carried on pretty much in the same locality. famous hospitality these guilds exercised in the Thus, the fishmongers were to be found in old time. Indeed, their magnificence may be Tower Street and Fish Street Hill, as they are judged by the fact, that while they were in ex- at present; fripperers (old apparel sellers), and

stence there was no Mansion House for the upholders, or upholsterers, congregated on chief magistrate, and the lord mayor generally Ludgate Hill; the mercers and haberdashers gave his entertainments and kept his state in in West Cheape, and the goldsmiths also freone or other of them, generally in the one be- quented this great thoroughfare ; the brewers longing to his own company.

kept, as they do now, near the Thames. In In looking back at the records of the com- reference to the power of the companies with panies, one cannot fail to be struck with the respect to fining for adulterating, it would aptaste of these old worthies for all kinds of pear that this power was not wholly possessed festivity, merry-making, and shows. It really by themselves. Numbers of other companies seems that the Englishman of the present day had it in their power to make complaints beis a very different creature from the English- fore the lord mayor of the misdoings of any man of three or four centuries ago.

craft; and the only event civic history relates In the Catholic times, he appears to have of the celebrated Richard Whittington is that been more like the Frenchman or the Italian, he was a terror to the brewers, several members wearing his bonnet with a difference, of course ; of whose craft he prosecuted and punished for but still possessing a love of pleasure and a giving bad measure. We are sorry to add fondness for display strangely in contrast with that it is recorded that the Brewers' Company his present character. What with the “ridings at length mollified him by a present of two out against great personages,” the setting of pipes of red wine, costing no less than 71. 3s. 4d., the midsummer watch, the trade pageants, the a large sum in his day. Bribes to powerful burials in state of their members, and their persons were quite a matter of course in those endless banquets and festivities, we scarcely days, as we fear they are even now, only given know how they got through any business at | in a more refined and second-hand manner.

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In the early times these trade guilds were finely worked in satin, after nature, and they demi-religious bodies, and all their affairs had have long yellow hair. The side pieces are an ecclesiastical element in them. They all pictures equally elaborately wrought of Christ had their patron saints, who were generally delivering the keys to St. Peter. The entire chosen for their associations with their par- pall has a fringe of two inches in depth of gold ticular craft. Thus, the Fishmongers' was St. and purple silk threads."

the Drapers', the Virgin Mary, mother This pall is supposed to be the last Catholic of the lamb ; the Goldsmiths’, St. Dunstan. pall used by the company a short time before Upon these saints' days their grand festivals and the change of faith ; hence its splendid condishows were always held. They kept a mor- tion, and the vividness of its colours. On the tuary priest, sometimes two, who attended the burial, in 1524, of Sir Thomas Lovell (who built obits of all deceased members, and they main- Lincoln's Inn Gateway), at Holywell Nunnery, tained perpetual lights on the different altars Shoreditch, we catch a glimpse of the habit erected to their deceased worthies. The estates our fathers had of turning events of such solemleft to the companies in trust to maintain these nity into feasts, for we find that “there was altars and chantries formed a very large part of a drynkynge in all the cloisters, the nuns' hall, their property ; and when they were seized by and parlors of the said place, and everywhere Edward VI. a very great blow was dealt at ells for as many as would come, as well the their power and consequence, as they had to crafts of London as gentlemen of the Inps of redeem them by the sale of other property. Court." This seems to have been the universal When any very eminent member of their craft practice at the time. At ordinary funerals the died, the whole livery attended his funeral. bearers were regaled with beer and ale in the All the companies had a state hearse-cloth, or churches ; and on such grand occasions as the pall, which was used on these grand occasions. one above noticed the company, after attending The Saddlers’ Company still preserve theirs ; and the state funeral, always dined together in their the Fishmongers' state pall is one of the famous ball. These feasts were an odd mixture of sights of that great company. It was not a strong and delicate meat. Roasted swansmere cloth of black velvet, such as we now use, standard swans set upright in the dish,although they used such on ordinary occasions, a very favourite dish in those days; boar, but a splendidly embroidered affair, a descrip- conger, lampreys, and coney standard, or rabbits tion of which will not, perhaps, be here out of set upright, are also continually mentioned ; place.

and besides these, we find “sea hog,” or por" It consists of a centre slip about twelve poise, spoken of in those feasts as a standard feet long and two feet and a half wide, and dish. These sea hogs must have been a montwo shorter sides, each eight feet eleven inches strous size sometimes, as we find that when a long, by one foot four inches wide, and when laid cart is required to bring them to the kitchen over the coffin must have totally enveloped it; an extra allowance is to be made for carriage. but it is without corner folds, like our modern With these grosser dishes, however, we find palls.

The pattern of the central some lighter courses of a more delicate chapart is a sprig or central flower, the latter of racter, such as white mottrews, leche lombard, which is composed of gold network bordered great birds with little ones together, fritters, with red, and the whole whereof reposes on a payne puff, frumenty, or wheat boiled in milk, smooth solid ground of cloth of gold. The was also a favourite dish, and the drink was end pieces and side borders to this middle some red wine of the claret kind. slip are worked in different pictures and repre- Rude as was the magnificence of the grand sentations. The end pieces consist of a very

dinners of these trade guilds, in one respect rich and massy wrought picture, in gold and they far surpassed those of modern days. They silk, of the patron, St. Peter, in pontificalibus. admitted the ladies, not to peep at their gross He is seated on a superb throne, his head feeding from some far-off gallery, but to sit crowned with the papal tiara. One hand holds with them at the best places of the board. the keys, and the other is in the posture of Not only were the fair sex invited, but the giving the benediction. On each side of the members were directed to bring them, under saint is a kneeling angel, censing him with one penalties for disobedience. In the early times hanıl, and holding a sort of golden vase with women as well as men were members of these the other.

The angels' wings, accord- guilds; and every member's betrothed was exing to the old custom in such representations, pected to come, and was considered as good as are composed of peacocks’ feathers, in all their one of the livery. In the early part of the natural, vivid colours ; the outer robes are 17th century the ladies are

longer found gold, raised with crimson ; their under vests gracing the board, but even as late as 1687 white, shaded with sky blue; the faces are we find one very notable exception, when Sir

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John Peake, Lord Mayor, was entertained by the made to entertain him in his passage through Mercers' Company.

The coat and crest of this the streets, or along the river, for there were company is a virgin with dishevelled hair, and water pageants as well as land pageants. The this virgin and mystery they always made the land pageants were exhibited on a movable most of in their trade pageants. The maiden stage. Poets, we are told, were engaged to chariot in which she generally rode on these compose what were called “ projects," or aroccasions was made of beaten and embossed / rangements of scenes, with character, song, and silver, drawn by nine white Flemish mares, dialogue descriptive of the company of the lord three abreast, in rich trappings of silver and mayor elect. In the water spectacle of Sir white feathers. The lady was splendidly at- Thomas Middleton, grocer, in 1613, the pageant tired in white satin, adorned with jewels, and consisted of “five islands, artfully garnished was surrounded by young ladies representing with all manner of Indian fruit trees, drugges, all the virtues ; but what comes next is the spiceries, and the like, the middle island having most astounding. The virgin and all her fair a faire castle especially beautiful," in allusion bevy of attendants had their table provided for to the forts of the newly-established East India them in the hall, and dined in state on the Company, which gave an immense impetus to dais. Imagine the sensation such a bevy of the trade of the company. These islands must virgins must have made among the younger have been movable ones, placed on boats. members of the craft. These ladies were not, | All the other great companies had solemn enhowever, of doubiful character, such as we : tertainments on the occasion of having a lord imagine would be likely to offer themselves for mayor elected from their body ; so that with these public shows ; but their respectability 'the home plaything kept in the roof of the was guaranteed by a committee chosen to halls, the royal pageants, when kings entered select them ; at least such was the case in or returned from the wars (such as those giren 1704, when Sir William Gore was entertained tu Henry V. after Agincourt, and to Henry by the Mercers, for we find it recorded that the VII. after Bosworth), and the setting of the virgin on that occasion was a young and midsummer watch,

-a kind of civic guard for beautiful gentlewoman, of good parentage, the protection of the city, in which all the religious education, and unblemisht reputa- companies vied with each other in the magtion ;” and we must of course suppose that all nificent manner in which they turned out their her handmaidens were to match.

contingent to this grand middle-ages procession A reredos or screen generally ran — we may imagine what a merry time those these old halls to divide them from the but- old gentlemen had whose effigies we see on old tery hatch, as we see it now does in the dining- monuments, the very pictures of sad sedatehall of the Middle Temple. In the gallery ness and gravity, which, in common with many above this the musicians were posted, and we of our notions of the habits of our forefathers, find it was the custom to send the hat round" are wholly delusive. for these worthies, as we see it recorded that But if the City Companies knew how to at a dinner of the Brewers' Company the clerk amuse themselves, they also in time of necollected 20d. in the hall for “the harper cessity played an important part in the afminstrel." We must suppose that on state fairs of the country. Henry VII. early saw occasions a certain staid and sad gravity was the value of these bodies as a protection maintained ; but on ordinary festivals, after to the crown against the nobility, and he indinner, the pageants commenced.

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gratiated himself with them by becoming a a much easier matter to manago than may be ' member of the Taylors' Company, and sat imagined. The pageant was generally kept with them in the open hall, clothed in the in the open timber roof; it was let down with livery of their craft. James I. became a cords, and the simple play began. In the early member of the Clothworkers' Company, and days it was illustrative of some Scripture pas- the grand festival given in honour of the sage, such as Noah descending from the ark occasion of his inauguration was celebrated with his sons, or the sacrifice of Isaac ; and by two events. Inigo Jones arranged the our forefathers, after they had had their din- pageant; and in the old hall of the comner and wine, were wonderfully tolerant of all pany the glorious anthem, “God Save the shortcomings. Like boys at play, the same King,” was first heard, Dr. John Bull having old toy afforded them amusement for a very composed it for the occasion. Charles II. long time. On grand occasions, when they and William III. were also members of city indulged in out-of-door pageants, they threw companies. Put this connection of the coman air of poetry into these displays. When, panies with royalty was dearly purchased, for instance, a lord mayor was chosen from as they speedily came to be looked upon as their guild, some special entertainment was milch cows in all cases of state impecuniosities,

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