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pleasures or the comforts of a home. With toleration of a pernicious and utterly unjustifinone to take charge of the house, or to per- able system. Indeed, there is not a single form the simplest domestic duties, the abode of point on which that system can be successfully the family presented, when visited by me, an defended, and if neither masters nor men will appearance more squalid and cheerless than assist in putting it down, the task must that to be witnessed in the hovel of the poorest devolve on the legislature, which, for the sake Dorsetshire labourer. But what else had we of future generations yet unborn, for the sake reason to anticipate in such a case ?

of the future mothers of our mining populaIn other instances investigated by me, the tion, and for the sake of the moral, social, and females were unmarried, and yet had families of physical welfare of the present generation their own.

Many cases of gross profligacy and itself, should not hesitate to prohibit a species shocking depravity have been related of this of labour which forms one of the few remainclass, and few of them long retain even the ing links by which our present civilisation is semblance of the characteristic modesty and united to a barbaric past.

Joux PLUMMER. purity of their sex, the nature of their unwomanly occupation leading them into emulating the vices as well as the habits of their male

BY THE SEA. fellow-workers. More than one female has achieved a certain amount of notoriety by her

Stay, ye waves, one moment stay, pugilistic exploits, while others have displayed Rest one moment on your way, drinking powers which would astonish many a Toss your spray upon my brow, south-country toper. Yet there are many who

Let me seek your depths below. have escaped the full measure of degradation meted out to their unfortunate sisters, and None your sovereign on our strand ; who, clad in more womanly guise, are to be Ruled alone by Unseen Hand, found amongst the most regular and attentive

Ye bave wooed with placid breast frequenters of the various places of Worship,

Way-worn pilgrims to your rest; particularly those of Dissenters, in the district. Why these women should continue to follow Or again, with steeds of foam, their unsuitable and unfit occupation is an

Rampant rode your ocean home;

All resistlessi s your sway anomaly for which it is difficult to account,

Bear me in your arms away. except by supposing that habits and association have somewhat blunted their finer feelings. Still, it is sad to think that such a state of Oft bave I listed with shut eyes things should be found existing at the present To your sea-swept melodies ; day in some of our most important industrial

Say, what harp so sweetly strung

Echoes love your waves among ? districts.

The more intelligent and thoughtful of the miners themselves have repeatedly protested Say if flow'rets bloom to fade, against it, but their protests are of no avail.

Nursed within your coral glade ;

If the laughing rippling light The employers state that the remedy lies in the

Sinks into crystal graves at night? hands of the men, who have but to keep their wives and daughters at home, and the evil will be checked at once.

Very true, but does the Earth to me is hard and bare, misconduct, folly, or what we will, of the men

Fair is false, and false is fair ;

Love to me hath been a cheat, justify the employers in thus permitting or

A draught of gall, from chalice sweet.* tolerating the misuse of female labour ? The truth is, female labour is plentiful and cheaper, far cheaper, than that of the men, and unscru- Chill your arms ; yet not less chill pulous employers will be found very slow in

My life on earth, my wayward will ;

Then gladly would I sleep with ye encouraging a change which may tend to

In your deep cold tranquillity, diminish their profits. There are very many collieries, however, where no female labourers are allowed, and I have not heard that the proprie

Or lay me down upon your breast, tors of these have been losers thereby. If they

Murm ring soft music in my rest;

Life's long sob and struggle o'er did have to pay more for manual labour, they

There I'd wait a calmer shore. had that labour far better and more effectively

CLARE. performed than if it had be done by females, while they were exempt from the frightful

* Cos) all'egro fanciullo amount of demoralisation entailed by the

Porgiamo aspersi di soave licor gli orli del vaso.

Tasso, "Gerusalemine Liberata."


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YAPAHOO. PART II. I HAVE described the palace as being built upon the sloping ground, at the base of the wall of rock which rises many hun. dred feet above the surrounding plain. The foundations were consequently of the most substantial description, and the masonry raised upon them very massive ; but nothing can exceed the regularity of the courses of cut stone, and the perfect fitting and bonding of each block. Both the terrace which projects in advance of the main building, and the main building itself, are namented with carved stone mouldings, below which groups of figures in bold relief, resting on a lower moulding,

Entrance Doorway. designed to represent the upturned leaves of the lotus. The figures are excellent, and in great variety standing by itself, for they are built, and not, of attitude. They represent nâtch girls, not as most of the columns are, hewn out of a oppressed with clothing, who are dancing with single block. great spirit to the energetic music of tom.tom Near the door lies a fallen pillar of exceedbeaters and flageolet players, whose whole souls ing beauty—a monolith—which measures ten are in their work.

The intense gravity of feet in length and two feet square, and is in their faces is admirable ; while the whole scene excellent condition. is so well “ told,” that you can almost fancy The huge trees, which have overthrown so you can see their heads nodding in time to much, have spared two of the walls of the their music, and hear the castanets in the girls' vestibule on the left hand as you enter the hands. The overhanging moulding has pro- doorway ; but to judge from the displacement tected these figures from the weather, and the of the stones, it is evident that they must soon details are perfect. The ornaments of the share the fate of the corresponding wing on the female figures and the expression of their faces right, which has quite fallen away. are as though the sculptor had but just com- of the windows which lighted the hall, as I pleted his work.

have before said, remains quite perfect. It The doorway opens upon the terrace, and it is so beautiful that it deserves a minute is impossible not to be struck with its very description. graceful proportions. It is composed of three It consists of one slab of stone, measuring huge blocks of stone. The door-posts, or four feet seven inches by three feet three, jambs—each a single stone—measure eleven and seven inches thick. This thickness, howfeet six inches, exclusive of foundations, and ever, is only preserved along the mouldings at are in girth one foot six by one foot four. The its outer edges. Within the mouldings it has lintel, or traverse, is a single stone eight feet been reduced to an uniform thickness of three six inches long, but of greater bulk than the inches. jambs. They are beautifully fluted, and the The name given to it by the natives es. carving is as sharp as when the mason laid his actly describes it, “Siwoomædurukawooloowa," chisel down. On either side are columns, “the perforated palace window.” The surface whose capitals represent the lotus flower de- of the slab of stone has been perforated into pressed. These are sadly out of their perpen- forty-five rings or circles, which admitted the dicular, and, if indeed they have not already light into the entrance-hall, somewhat in the fallen, I fear they soon will leave the doorway fashion of the tracery work at the Taj at Agra.


But one




No. 271.

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In each circle is a sculptured figure, and it certainly greatly differs from the usual represcarcely two figures are alike.

sentation of it, and much more nearly resembles On page 283 is an accurate drawing of this the Burmese figure as given by Tennent, vol. i. very beautiful window, which is unique of its p. 485, first edition. It is very unlike the kind in Ceylon. No verbal description will bird as it appears in the sculptures at Anaradhaconvey a proper idea of it.

poora (vol. ii. p. 619), and the clay figure of The circles of the lowest row, it will be seen, it in the palace at Kandy (vol. i. p. 487). It contain grotesque Bacchanalian figures, which is equally unlike the following sketch of one of represent jolly, laughing fellows, and are exe- the oldest Hansas I have seen—a beautifully cuted with great humour. Above them are nâtch girls, all slightly different in attitude. They occur again in four circles near the centre of the window, and in a row near the top.

The row of circles above the nâtch girls contains figures of animals, which are repeated vertically along the mouldings on each side of the window, and continued in a horizontal row, the third from the top ; in short, they form the outer ridge of a square pattern, comprising

Brick irom the Naga Wihare. the twenty-five centremost circles of the window. The figures of these animals, it will be moulded relief on a brick, from the very noted, vary considerably. Eight have the ancient Naga Wihare, in Magampattoo, in the elephant's trunk, and are evidently intended south of the island, the “ Maha Naga Wiharó,” to represent the gaja-singha, before described.

mentioned in the Mahawanso, and founded It is remarkable that this is so far as I know,

by Maha Naaga, brother of Devenipia Tissa, and there are very few ruins in Ceylon that I have not thoroughly examined, -the only ex

B.C. 306, the founder of the ancient city

of Maagama. ample in which this fabulous animal is repre

The peculiar beauty of the window consists sented in any but a couchant attitude. Seven

rather in the general effect produced by the appear to be the same animal without the trunk, in which case, since the gaja-singha is arrangement of the figures with which it is so the elephant-lion, the characteristic of the profusely decorated, than in the ornamentation

itself. Seen from a little distance the details former being removed, the latter should re

are lost ; and the window appears to be of

: main ; but I am bound to say the resemblance

beautiful tracery work, and of regular pattern. to a lion in these seven circles is the very

It is only when closely examined that the faintest. But the centre circle of the third quaint designs I have endeavoured to describe row from the bottom contains a pair of perfect lions rampant.

The nine circles remaining of the twentyfive before mentioned form again a distinct square pattern within the other, of which four lotus flowers, or stars, mark the angles.

The row of circles at the top of the window contain figures of the Hansa, the royal rather than the “sacred ” bird, of which Tennent has given so many curious particulars, and which, in Ceylon as well as in Burmah, was one of the


Fragment of Broken Window.

Burmese Hansa. (From Tennent's “

“Cejlon.") are observed. If my sketch did justice to the

original, the effect 1 have described would be emblems of the national banner. If this be visible by looking at the drawing with partially intended for the Hausa, as I believe it to be, I closed eyes.

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It is much to be regretted that the rough about, show that it entirely differed in design texture of the stone should be so unworthy of from the existing one, which I shuddered to the skill of the sculptor. Had it been exe- think must so soon share its fate. This, I cuted in white marble, or even in the mag- am happy to say, has been averted ; for Mr. nesian limestone which abounds in Ceylon, the O'Grady, the government agent of the province, effect would have been infinitely more lovely. has removed it to Kurnegalle, where, in the

The corresponding window, as I have said, beautiful grounds of his official residence, itself is gone. But the fragments, which lie scattered the site of the royal palace of Hastisailapoora,

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he has erected it, with other choice specimens hist chieftains fortified themselves in hills in of stone carving, as a monument to ancient retired parts of the country, and protected the

people and the priesthood. Amongst these a Yapahoo, or more correctly Yapawu,-called noble, named Subha Sénapatí, a devoted adSubhapabbata in the Mahawanso,—appears herent of the Buddhist religion, disgusted at to have been founded in the beginning of the the impious profligacy of the king, determined thirteenth century, during the usurpation of on no longer remaining at court.” He acMaagha, who came from Kalinga (the northern cordingly resigned his office, and, assembling Circars) A.D. 1219. At this time several Budd- his followers, quitted Pollanarua, and fortified

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the hill of Yapawu, where, in the words of the a Malabar, took up his residence here. Mahawanso, on the summit of the Subha probably at this time that the city was demountain, inaccessible to enemies, having built stroyed by the Portuguese, and it has been a city like Alakamanda (the most beautiful of ever since deserted. celestial cities) he resided, like another Wessa- It has scarcely borne out its title of Yapawu, wanno (the regent of the north) protecting that or Subhapabbata, the city on the “ auspicious part of the country and the religion from the rock." Kerala monsters." The city, as I have said, lay at the base of

THE GENTLEMAN WITH THE the rock ; but a winding path, with rude steps,

CAMELLIAS. leads to the top, which doubtless was a place I was going one morning from Southampton of refuge in times of danger. A similar in- to London. I had the carriage to myself as stance of this occurs at Seegiri, which how far as Kingston ; here a little man got in who ever, unlike Yapahoo, partakes more of the at once attracted my attention by the peculifortress than the palace.

arity of his dress, appearance, and manner. About the year a.d. 1267, Yapahoo, as well He was in evening dress, everything about him, , as Pollanarua and Kurnegalle, were greatly from the silk-faced dress-coat to the patent embellished and ornamented by Bosat Wijaya leather boots, being bran new. A fact of Bahoo, son of Pandita Praakrama Bahoo III., which he was far from being unconscious; each who, in A.D. 1303, after his succession to the of his garments, in its turn, attracted his throne, was murdered at Pollanarua by his notice and approving smile. adigar, Mita Séna. The army, however, re- / The only thing about him that violated mained faithful to the royal family, and pro- ¡ evening etiquette was his necktie, a blue clained his brother, who had fled to Yapahoo, one, negligently arranged à la Byron under a under the title of King Bhuwaneka Bahoo I. rolling collar. This king, who, prior to his accession, had

From this I augured that he was a poet, for lived at Yapahoo, now made it the seat of turn-down collars were by no means so common government, and removed the sacred Dalada then as now; the fashion prescribing terrific thither.

gills, which, in short-necked men, endangered During this reign, Koola Saikera Raja, king the safety of their whiskers and ears. My of Pandi (Madura), sent an army into Ceylon, surmise was confirmed by his long hair, its and placed it under the command of his tribu- natural tendency to curl being combated by the tary, Aareya Chakkrawarti, king of Jaffna. copious exhibition of grease,

and probably by Yapahoo was taken, and the sacred relic carried assiduous brushing. off to Madura.

His face, however, was somewhat against From this time Yapahoo ceased to be the my theory : instead of being thin and pale, capital ; but it still appears to have been a with eyes“ in fine frenzy rolling,” it was place of considerable importance for the next round, dumpling-like, and rosy ; his little eyes

deeply set in tunnels of fat, which, as he In the reign of Sree Praakrama Kotta, a chuckled from time to time, were half closed descendant of the royal family was made by his rising cheeks, and presented to view Dissave of Yapahoo, and shortly after the a mere slit ; his nose short, turned up, and accession of Jayaa Bahoo II., A.D. 1464, he garnished at the tip with six or seven curly rebelled, put the king to death, and was raised hairs; his mouth expansive, and his teeth very to the throne under the title of Bhuwaneka good : fortunately, as he showed them all, not Bahoo VI.

even concealing the wisdom teeth, which were In A.D. 1527, Yapahoo was the place of not quite come down. refuge of the two elder sons of Wijaya Bahoo He was well made, what there was of him ; VII., when they fled from their father, who he was not much above five feet high, rather sought to put them to death. They assembled disposed to embonpoint. their forces, and, attacking him in their turn,

In his button-hole he wore a magnificent murdered him, and the eldest became king, as white camellia, which, I regret to say, I saw, Bhuwaneka Bahoo VII.

admired, coveted, and determined to possess, The last mention of Yapahoo in history is by fair means if possible, if not, by foul. in the reign of Don Juan Dharmapaala, whom This flower, too, attracted much of his atten. the Portuguese set up in A.D. 1542, when, tion; he bestowed frequent glances upon it, among the many aspirants to the throne, one, muttering what I conceived to be poetry,

inspired by the purity and delicacy of the * I am indebted for these particulars to two very intel- flower. tigent native gentlemen-Messrs, L. De Zoysa and S. Jaye

I was considering how I might best commence

200 years.


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