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PART IV.-CLOTHING MANUFACTURING IN CHICAGO, ILL.

CHAPTER I.

INTRODUCTION.

Employees for whom information was secured –[Text Table 141 and General

Table 86).

EMPLOYEES FOR WHOM INFORMATION WAS SECURED.

A detailed study was made of 95 households in Chicago, the heads of which were engaged in the clothing manufacturing industry. The results of this study, however, appear in the showing for the industry as a whole, and are not shown separately for the city of Chicago. Detailed returns were also obtained for 8,627 individual employees in addition to the households studied, and these data are used as a basis for the survey of the clothing industry in Chicago. The following table shows, by sex, the number and per cent of employees of each race for whom information was secured.

Table 141.- Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity

and race.

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Native-born of native father:
White....

120

136 Negro..

2 Native-born of foreign father, by country of birth of father: Australia...

2

5 Austria-Hungary.

2431

701 Belgium.

3 Canada. Denmark.

7 England.

8 France.

1 Germany

275 Ireland.

20 Italy.

9

97 Netherlands. Norway.

16 Russia

230 Scotland. Sweden.

21

23 Switzerland. Turkey...

1 Foreign-born, by race: Bohemian and Moravian.

504

352 Bulgarian

2 Canadian, French,

3 Canadlan, Other..

a Less than 0.05 per cent.

3 1,173

34 100 10 34 331

8

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2 7 11

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TABLE 141.- Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity

and race—Continued.

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a Less than 0.05 per cent.

CHAPTER II.

RACIAL DISPLACEMENTS.

History of immigration--Period of residence in the United States of foreign-born

employees-Racial classification of employees at the present time-- Reasons for employing immigrants——[Text Tables 142 and 143 and General Table 87).

HISTORY OF IMMIGRATION.

The first employees in the earliest clothing manufacturing establishments in Chicago were Germans, German Hebrews, Bohemians, and a few Americans and Poles. The Bohemians and Poles have been employed in constantly increasing numbers, while the Germans and Americans have dropped out of the industry. To-day more Bohemians are employed than any other one race. About fifteen years ago the Scandinavians began to enter the industry, and within five years had proved such excellent workmen on pants and vests that they were among all employees first choice for work of this kind, and they constitute a large and important factor of the clothing industry at the present time. Although the Italians, both North and South, have been employed in the contract manufacture of clothing in the city for twenty-five years or more, it is only within the past seven or eight years that they have been employed in any numbers in the factories. The Russian Hebrews have been employed within the past ten years. Their numbers are rapidly increasing, and it is noteworthy that they send into the clothing trades a much higher proportion of men than any other race. Lithuanians have entered the industry within the last five or six years.

PERIOD OF RESIDENCE IN THE UNITED STATES OF FOREIGN-BORN

EMPLOYEES.

The character of immigration to the industry in Chicago during recent and past years may readily be seen from the following table, which shows by sex and race the per cent of foreign-born employees who have been in the United States each specified number of years.

The period of residence of employees in the United States and in the clothing industry in Chicago are not necessarily the same, but during all periods they approximate each other, and during recent years have been practically identical for the reason that immigrants direct from Europe have entered the industry.

TABLE 142.Per cent of foreign-born employees in the United States each specified number

of years, by sex and race.

(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

[By years in the United States is meant years since first arrival in the United States. No deduction is made for time spent abroad. This table includes only races with 80 or more persons reporting. The total, however, is for all foreign-born.)

MALE.

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From the foregoing table it is seen that of 5,544 persons reporting complete data, 3,204 are males and 2,340 are females. Of the total number, 50.7 per cent have been here under five years, 22.7 per cent have been here from five to nine years, 5.2 per cent from ten to fourteen years, 8.5 per cent from fifteen to nineteen years, and 12.8 per cent have been here twenty years or over. The Germans, with 21.7 per cent, and the Lithuanians, with 71.2 per cent, show the smallest and largest proportions, respectively, who have been here under five years, while each of the remaining races, excepting Bohemians and Moravians, Hebrews other than Russian, and Poles show the greatest proportion of their numbers to have immigrated to the United States within the last five years. Fair proportions of all races have been here from five to nine years, but the Germans alone show the greatest proportion of their numbers as having been here ten years or over, while the Slovaks show the smallest proportion having resided here during a similar period.

Comparing males with females, it will be observed, generally speaking, that the males are the older immigrants.

RACIAL CLASSIFICATION OF EMPLOYEES AT THE PRESENT TIME.

The table next submitted showing by sex the number and per cent of the employees for whom information was secured is believed to be representative of the racial make-up of the entire operating force of the industry in Chicago at the present time.

TABLE 143.- Employees for whom information was secured, by sex and general nativity

and race.
(STUDY OF EMPLOYEES.)

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Native-born of native father:
White.

120

136 Negro..

2 Native-born of foreign father, by country of birth of father: Australia.

2 Austria-Hungary.

243 Belgium

3 Canada.

4 Denmark

7
England.
France.
Germany

275
Ireland.
Italy

9 Netherlands.

3 Norway.

18 Russia

101

230 Scotland.

4 Sweden..

21

23 Switzerland

1

3 Turkey.

1 Foreign-born, by race: Bohemian and Moravian.

504 352 Bulgarian...

2 Canadian, French.

3 Canadian, Other

5 Croatian..

24

29 Danish

11 Dutch

5 English

19 Finnish

5 French

2 German.

205 146 Greek.

3

3 Hebrew, Russian.

736 370 Hebrew, Other

256

93 Irish..

14 Italian, North.

242 Italian, South

150 240 Lithuanian.

270

150 Magyar..

80

39 Mexican.

1 Norwegian

15

32 Polish..

524 374
« Less than 0.05 per cent.

9.9 (9)

12.8 4.0 ..2 3.7 4.5

4.9

12.8

10.4

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