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struction of the platform would make the restoration of the coinage of gold and silver on equal terms a necessary part of an act repealing the Sherman law. As soon as the election was over, the scheme to secure unconditional repeal was put on foot. In fact, an attempt was made to secure it during the closing session of the Fifty-second Congress. After 1892, the well settled terms used in the discussion of the silver question began to be distorted. The word "bimetallism” began to be used in a sense entirely unknown in previous years. Men claimed to be bimetallists, but supported every measure suggested by the advocates of the gold standard. In a speech made in Ohio, I think in 1895, Senator Sherman used language something like this (I read it in the press dispatches at the time and quote from memory):

The parity between gold and silver can only be maintained by the use of gold as the standard, with silver coined in limited quantities as a limited legal tender. This can properly be called bimetallism.

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This definition of bimetallism has, within the last four years, become quite common among those who favor the gold standard, but are not willing to be known as monometallists. Bimetallism means twometallism, just as certainly as the word biped means mal with two feet. It means the use of two metals as standard money, and to be standard money they must be treated alike. If to use gold as a standard, with silver coined in limited quantities as a limited legal tender, is bimetallism, then England now has bimetallism. If that system can properly be

called bimetallisin, then the use of copper in limited quantities as a limited legal tender along with such a system would constitute trimetallism. It seems to me that the absurdity of Mr. Sherman's definition must be apparent to anyone who will give the subject a moment's consideration. It was the attempt of the opponents of free coinage to misconstrue the terms formerly used, that led to the declaration for a specific ratio. Then, too, many insisted upon calling themselves bimetallists who were unwilling to vote for bimetallism without an international agreement. This made it necessary to adopt some means of distinguishing between independent bimetallists and international bimetallists. The Populists, in 1892, declared for free coinage at 16 to 1, but that declaration was not sufficient in 1896, because there were plenty of gold men who would have subscribed to it with the mental reservation, "whenever the rest of the world will join with us."

When the silver Democrats organized for the purpose of capturing the National Convention they announced their intention to secure,

if possible, a platform which would avoid ambiguous words and leave nothing for misinterpretation, and therefore the State Conventions controlled by the silver Democrats instructed their delegates to vote for a plank declaring, in substance, for free coinage, for unlimited coinage, for coinage at 16 to 1, and for such coinage without waiting for the aid or consent of any other nation. This platform spread over the country until it became a part of the creed of the silver advocates. The Democratic National Convention adopted it, the convention of the National Silver party adopted it, and the Populist party adopted it. Thus three conventions united in this demand for an American financial policy for the American people.

It was several years before the colonists could give effect to their Declaration of Independence; it may be several years before this nation can, through actual legislation, assert its financial independence. But, in my judgment, the financial independence of the United States is as certain to be secured as was political independence.

CHAPTER XVII.

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THREE NATIONAL COMMITTEES.

HE campaign for the restoration of bimetallism was carried on by three National Committees. I give below the name and address of each committeeman for the benefit of those who

may desire to refer to the matter hereafter.

DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL COMMITTEE.

Chairman, James K. Jones, Washington, Ark.; Secretary, C. A. Walsh, Ottumwa, Ia.; Treasurer, William P. St. John, New York City.

Campaign Committee.

Daniel J. Campau, Chairman, Detroit, Mich.; John R. McLean, Cincinnati, O.; William J. Stone, Jefferson City, Mo.; J. G. Johnson, Peabody, Kas.; Thomas Gahan, Chicago, Ill.; Clark Howell, Jr., Atlanta, Ga.; William A. Clark, Butte, Mont.; James Kerr, Clearfield, Pa.; Secretary, Frank Hosford, Mich.

Executive Committee.

James K. Jones, Chairman; Henry D. Clayton, Eufaula, Ala.; Thomas C. McRae, Prescott, Ark.; J. J. Dwyer, San Francisco, Cal.; Adair Wilson, Durango, Col.; Richard R. Kenney, Dover, Del.; Samuel Pasco, Monticello, Fla.; George Ainslie, Boise City, Idaho; John G. Shanklin, Evansville, Ind.; C. A. Walsh, Ottumwa, Ia.; Urey Woodson, Owensboro, Ky.; N. C. Blanchard, Shreveport, La.; Arthur P. Gorman, Laurel, Md.; D. J. Campau, Detroit, Mich.; William J. Stone, Jefferson City, Mo.; W. H. Thompson, Grand Island, Neb.; James Smith, Jr., Newark, N. J.; Josephus Daniel, Raleigh, N. C.; William C. Leistikow, Grafton, N. D.; B. R. Tillman, Trenton, S. C.; James M. Head, Nashville, Tenn.; Peter J. Otey, Lynchburg, Va.; E. C. Wall, Milwaukee, Wis.; Marcus A. Smith, Phoenix, Ariz.; Lawrence Gardner, Washington, D. C.; Thomas Marcum, Muscogee, I. T.; Secretary, Thomas O. Towles, Jefferson City, Mo.

Remaining Members of National Committee.

Alexander Troop, New Haven, Conn.; Seth C. Gordon, Portland, Me.; John W. Corcoran, Boston, Mass.; T. D. O'Brien, St. Paul,

Minn.; W. V. Sullivan, Oxford, Miss.; John J. McHatton, Butte City, Mont.; Clayton Belknap, Virginia City, Nev.; True L. Norris, Portsmouth, N. H.; Philip D. Baker, Bridgeton, N. J.; Frank Campbell, Bath, N. Y.; I. P. Baker, Bismarck, N. D.; J. H. Townsend, Dallas, Ore.; William F. Harrity, Philadelphia, Pa.; Richard B. Comstock, Providence, R. I.; James M. Woods, Rapid City, S. D.; James C. Dudley, Paris, Tex.; A. W. McCune, Salt Lake City, Utah.; Bradley B. Smalley, Burlington, Vt.; William H. White, Seattle, Wash.; John T. McGraw, Grafton, W. Va.; William H. Holliday, Laramie, Wyo.; Charles D. Rogers, Sitka, Alaska; F. A. Manzanaras, East Las Vegas, N. M.; Whit M. Grant, Oklahoma, O. T.

PEOPLE'S PARTY NATIONAL COMMITTEE.

Chairman, Marion Butler, Raleigh, N. C.; Secretary, J. A. Edgerton, Lincoln, Neb.; Treasurer, M. C. Rankin, Terre Haute, Ind.

Executive Committee.

The chairman, secretary and treasurer, together with J. R. Sovereign, Sulphur Springs, Ark.; George F. Washburn, Boston, Mass.; John W. Breidenthal, Topeka, Kas.; Dr. C. F. Taylor, Philadelphia, Pa.; H. W. Reed, Brunswick, Ga.; John S. Dore, Fresno, Cal.

Remaining Members of the National Committee.

R. F. Kolb, Birmingham, Ala.; R. H. Seymor, Livingston, Ala.; K. S. Woodruff, Anniston, Ala.; A. W. Files, Little Rock, Ark.; J. O. A. Bush, Prescott, Ark.; E. M. Hamilton, Los Angeles, Cal.; F. Houghton, Corning, Cal.; John C. Bell, Montrose, Col.; H. S. Tompkins, Colorado; J. H. Voorhees, Pueblo, Col.; William W. Wheeler, Meriden, Conn.; Dr. Joshua Perkins, Danielson, Conn.; H. C. Baldwin, Naugatuck, Conn.; Benjamin Lundy, Farmington, Del.; Charles Beadenkopf, Wilmington, Del.; George L. Morris, Wilmington, Del.; S. S. Harvey, Quintette, Fla.; F. H. Lytle, Stanton, Fla.; J. F. Rhoads, Jacksonville, Fla.; J. L. Sibley, Marietta, Ga.;、 Cary J. Thornton, Columbus, Ga.; J. H. Anderson, Weiser, Idaho; A. J. Cook, Payette, Idaho; Ed. Boyce, Wallace, Idaho; H. E. Taubeneck, Marshall, Ill.; J. D. Hess, Pittsfield, Ill.; Eugene Smith, Chicago, Ill.; Joshua Strange, Arcana, Ind.; D. H. Fernandes, Anderson, Ind.; W. S. Auston, New Albany, Ind.; W. H. Robb, Creston, Ia.; S. B. Crane, Des Moines, Ia.; J. E. Anderson, Forest City, Ia.; J. M. Allen, Erie, Kas.; W. D. Vincent, Clay Center, Kas.; A. H. Cardin, Marion, Ky.; John G. Blair,

Carlisle, Ky.; W. B. Bridgeford, Frankfort, Ky.; A. A. Gunby, Monroe, La.; J. T. Howell, Baton Rouge, La.; E. C. Dillon, Many, La.; L. C. Bateman, Auburn, Me.; L. W. Smith, Vinalhauen, Me.; Henry Betts, Ellsworth, Me.; C. M. Kemp, Baltimore, Md.; Hiram Vrooman, Baltimore, Md.; T. Canfield Jenkins, Pomonkey, Md.; E. Gerry Brown, Brockton, Mass.; P. J. Gardener, Danvers, Mass.; John O. Zable, Petersburg, Mich.; James E. McBride, Grand Rapids, Mich.; Benjamin Colvin, St. Charles, Mich.; W. R. Dobbyn, Minneapolis, Minn.; Thomas J. Meighen, Forestville, Minn.; J. M. Bowler, Bird Island, Minn.; R. K. Prewitt, Ackerman, Miss.; Frank Burkitt, Okolona, Miss.; T. L. McGeehee, Summit, Miss.; P. J. Dixon, Chillicothe, Mo.; J. H. Hillis, McFall, Mo.; Dr. DeWitt Eskew, Poplar Bluffs, Mo.; A. E. Spriggs, Townsend, Mont.; M. L. Stewart, Mason, Mont.; Mrs. Ella K. Haskell, Helena, Mont.; William V. Allen, Madison, Neb.; James H. Edmisten, Lincoln, Neb.; D. Clem Deaver, Omaha, Neb.; J. B. McCullough, Reno, Nev.; C. E. Allen, Eureka, Nev.; J. C. Deethe, Keith, Nev.; Darrance B. Currier, Hanover, N. H.; G. J. Greenlief, Portsmouth, N. H.; George D. Epps, Francistown, N. H.; J. R. Buchanan, Newark, N. J.; John Wilcox, Bridgeton, N. J.; Eltweed Pomeroy, Newark, N. J.; C. R. White, Miller Corners, N. Y.; Lafe Pence, New York City; L. J. McParlin, Lockport, N. Y.; J. T. Garrett, Henderson, N. C.; A. L. Ramsey, Raleigh, N. C.; Walter Muir, Hunton, N. D.; Dr. William A. Bentley, Bismarck, N. D.; N. O. Noben, Grafton, N. D.; J. S. Coxey, Massilon, O.; Hugh Preyor, Cleveland, O.; D. D. Chidester, Ohio; J. W. Marksbury, Gold Hill, Ore.; John C. Lucy, John Day, Ore.; John W. Jory, Oregon; Jerome B. Aitken, Washington, Pa.; W. Morris Deisher, Reading, Pa.; V. A. Lotier, Danville, Pa.; A. J. Plowman, Deadwood, S. D.; Henry S. Volknar, Milbank, S. D.; H. P. Smith, Madison, S. D.; J. H. McDowell, Union City, Tenn.; J. P. Buchanan, Wayside, Tenn.; J. W. James, Chattanooga, Tenn.; C. S. Granberry, Austin, Tex.; H. L. Bentley, Abilene, Tex.; Harry Tracey, Dallas, Tex.; James Hogan, Ogden, Utah; Mrs. Kate S. Hillard, Ogden, Utah; H. W. Lawrence, Salt Lake City, Utah; G. W. B. Hale, Rocky Mount, Va.; J. H. Hobson, Belona, Va.; J. W. McGavock, Graham Ford, Va.; A. J. Beebe, Swanton, Vt.; A. T. Way, Burlington, Vt.; C. S. Louis, South Reading, Vt.; E. W. Way, Seattle, Wash.; A. P. Tugwell, Chehallis, Wash.; C. W. Young, Pullman, Wash.; Nat. Fitzgerald, Terra Alta, W. Va.; W. R. Neale, Parkersburg, W. Va.; H. T. Houston, Alderson, W. Va.; Robert Schilling, Milwaukee, Wis.;

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