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Mr. Webster once remarked to me in conversation, that he did not believe that we should ever be able to obtain good wine from the Atlantic slope of the American continent. The reason given by him was this: the prevailing winds of the temperate region being from the west, as in the United States they came from the land, a much higher degree of heat was felt in the summer than in Europe, where they blew from the Atlantic Ocean. Hence he thought the extreme heat of the summer here would bring about too soon an acetous fermentation, unfavorable to the production of good wines. If this view should present an insurmountable difficulty with respect to wines made from foreign grapes, that ripen in the heat of our summers, it nevertheless would not exist in the case of the natives, which do not usually come to maturity until the greatest heats of the summer are past, namely, in the months of September and October. In fact, in a district of a few miles in extent on the Tryon mountain, where neither dew nor frost is ever known, and which is remarkable for the variety and excellence of its native grapes, they are often found in fine condition in the open air, as late as December.

In the wine districts of France, there are embraced in all about eight thousand square miles, a considerable portion of which consists of rocky steeps, and terraces, unfitted for the production of the cereals, and yet the yield in wine is of the value of more than fifty millions of dollars annually, while the product of brandy is from ten to twelve millions.

It thus appears that the whole yield from these eight thousand miles. of territory is equal to about one-half of the average value of the cotton crop of the United States for the last five years. There is doubtless in North Carolina a much greater amount of land than this, suitable to the growing of grapes, and may we not hope, one of these days, to become a great wine producing community?

With the single exception of the sugar from the cane, I know of no agricultural product of the Union which is not suited to our State. I do not merely mean to say that they may be produced, but that they all find in our limits their appropriate soil and climate, and can be successfully cultivated to an extent greatly surpassing the wants of our own people. All the domestic animals existing in the United States thrive within our borders. Though the sheep may be advantageously reared in almost every part of the State, he finds his best climate and most attractive food in the mountainous region, while the blood horse can be most successfully raised in the sandy districts of the lower country.

The climate of North Carolina as a whole is eminently favorable. I know that different opinions prevail in many quarters, and so much is said in these days of northern energy and southern indolence, that you will doubtless pardon a few remarks tending to dispel a singular popular delusion. I maintain, then, that during nine-tenths of the existence of man on the globe, as historically known, the destinies of the world have been controlled by nations occupying territories having as warm climates as our own. According to the settled opinion of the learned, when man was first created, he was placed by Providence in

such a climate, and it would be singular indeed, if, when he was commanded to multiply and replenish the earth, he should have been placed by his Creator in an unfavorable location. Egypt, where man seems first to have attained a high state of civilization, and India, had tropical climates. The four great Empires of antiquity were, in their centres, subjected to ranges of temperature as high as ours. Babylon and Persepolis were nearer the equator than the most southern point of North Carolina, while Nineveh was below its northern limit, and the hearts of the Assyrian and Persian Empires were subjected to a warmer climate than ours. And Greece and Rome, too, were lands of the olive, the vine and the fig tree, and possessed temperatures as high as our own. What people ever exhibited more spirit, energy, and enterprise than the Greeks in their Persian wars and Asiatic invasions? Where has the world seen such an example of long-sustained strength and energy as was manifested by the Romans, when they held for so many centuries the best portions of the known world from Scotland down to the great African desert? After the decay and fall of their Empire, there began under the tropic of Cancer a movement headed by Mahomet, which swept over the earth with the rapidity of a flame of fire, subjecting the principal parts of it to its control. A high state of civilization was kept up for centuries at Bagdad and Cordova, the capitals of the principal branches of the Saracenic dominions. After their decline and the overthrow of the Greek Empire of Constantinople, the period of Spanish ascendency began. It thus appears that it is only during the last two or three centuries that the so-called northern nations have had control of the world. The extraordinary popular error which so generally prevails on this subject is due, doubtless, mainly to the fact that to the minds of the majority of men the present is everything, and the past however long it may have been, goes for nothing. It in part, too, may be accounted for by the well-known circumstance, that the old Roman Empire in the period of its decay was overrun by bands of Barbarians from the north. But at that time the strength of the Romans was gone, having been destroyed by their vices, and the despotisms to which they had been subjected. In fact, they had long ceased to be a military people, or to bear arms, and had been accustomed to hire these Barbarians to defend them. That they should have fallen a prey to them is no more wonderful than that a decrepit giant, after a century of vice and dissipation, should have been overpowered by a stripling. There can be no doubt but that any one of the half a dozen such armies as the Roman Republic could keep in the field at the same time, would have been able to beat any horde of barbarians that ever crossed the frozen Danube.

I would not disparage or undervalue the intellect, talent, energy and courage exhibited by the northern nations in our day. But Homer still stands the monarch of poetry. All attemps to equalize others with him but serve to show their lamentable inferiority. Demosthenes and Cicero are still the models to which the sudent in oratory is pointed. Who has exhibited more capacity for metaphysical science than Aristotle, or greater genius for mechanical philosophy than Archimedes?

Whose works of art surpass those of Phidias and Michael Angelo? Who as moralists have been superior to Socrates and St. Paul? What navigators were more enterprising and daring than Christopher Columbus and Vasco de Gama? Who as warriors, statesmen and possessors of universal genius and talent, rank above Julius Cæsar and Napoleon Bonaparte? The catalogue might be indefinitely extended, by references to both Europe and the United States, but until these names are overshadowed, it cannot be truthfully said that a northern clime is necessary to develop the highest degree of human courage, talent, energy and intellect.

We have, then, all the necessary physical conditions in our territory -minerals, soils, woods, waters and climate-to make us a great agricultural State. In addition to these advantages, there must be an intelligent, energetic and moral population. It is only with our day, that the characteristics and qualities of the various races of men have received any large share of attention. Many ages ago the different species of animals and plants and even the heavenly bodies, were the objects of study, but it is only of late that the peculiarities of the several races of men have become the subjects of investigation, and that this branch of science, most important to man, has made remarkable progress.

The dominant race in our State belongs entirely to the great Caucasian family, that has in all ages controlled the destinies of the world. Wherever it has existed, neither zone, nor clime, nor external circumstances have materially modified its physical and mental features. It has dominated alike in Northern and in Southern Europe, and in Central and Southern Asia, nor have the torrid heats of Africa prevented Carthagenian, and Roman, and Saracenic ascendency. In America, too, whenever its stock has been kept pure, its superiority has been equally striking from Canada to Cape Horn. But while it every where shows itself to be superior to any of the other races, it is nevertheless affected to some extent by certain causes. While the mixture of those nearly related by blood is extremely injurious, and on the other hand the union of races widely different, is destruction in a few generations to the hybrid progeny resulting from it, it has been ascertained that a combination of varieties of the same race is advantageous, and that in such cases there are exhibited the highest degrees of courage, energy and intellect. The ancestors of the present population of North Carolina were mainly from England, and the English people are themselves a combination of the original Celts, Romans, Saxons, Danes, and Normans. In our own State they have received a large admixture of the modern Germans, Irish, Scotch, French, and other European nations. Such a combination gives the best assurance of a high order of intellectural and moral qualities One-third of our population consists of an inferior race held in subjection by the higher one. The negroes are by their physical constitutions eminently fitted for a hot climate, and for situations unfavorable to the health of white men. They are, therefore, suited to the swamp lands of the lower counties, where they can labor without injury from the solar heat and malaria. They exist, too, among us in a proportion nearly large enough to occupy in time the region where they are most needed, though

perhaps in rather less numbers at present than the State, as a whole, may require. The negro, in all ages, and in all countries, where he has remained for any length of time, has been a slave, and his natural qualities seem so eminetly fitted for that condition, as strongly impel us to the belief that he was intended by Providence to occupy that station. It is, too, gratifying for us to know that as he exists in the Southern States of the Union, he is in all respects superior to what he has been elsewhere. Apprehension was formerly felt lest, by reason of the considerable numbers existing in this country, there might in time be a complete mixture of the two races, or dangerous collisions between them. Intelligent minds at this time have no such fear. As to the first ground of uneasiness, independently of the repugnance felt by the white man to such an union, Providence has by a law of his own, higher than any human enactment, guarded against it. For purposes of his own he has determined that the different species of living things shall continue to exist as separated by him, in spite of efforts to add to the number of the various species. This principle applies to the human race as well as to the inferior animals. Hence, when mixtures occur, they, like other hybrids, can exist only for a few generations. Had it been otherwise, instead of the different races we now find in most parts of the earth, there would have been only one uniform mixture of all, like an alloy of metals fused together. Nor is there reason to apprehend resistance, or rebellion, among the negroes on any large scale. They are instinctively so sensible of the superiority of the white man, and so docile in their disposition, that they remain passive in their present condition. In fact, so wide is the chasm between them and us, that they do not aspire to equality. We have, therefore, a great advantage over those nations that have held, as slaves, their own equals. In such cases there have been dangerous insurrections and most cruel and bloody civil wars.

The effect, too, of this condition of things, is favorable to the ruling race. Every white man is sensible of his advantages, and takes a pride in his position. He looks upon himself as the peer of all living men. It was well said by Burke, that in countries where slavery was unknown, liberty was looked upon as an important political right; but that where it did exist, each freeman regarded his liberty as a high personal privilege which he was ready to defend with the last drop of his blood, and that slaveholders always maintained their liberties with a higher and haughtier spirit than others. With us there is the double stimulant: first, that of freedom as contrasted with slavery: secondly, the superiority of the white man to the negro. Our society, seems, therefore, to rest on the most favorable basis.

North Carolina is often called an honest State. I doubt if those who thus speak of our integrity and honesty, realize the extent of the compliment they pay us. I fear, fellow-citizens, that we do not ourselves, fully appreciate it. As one of the great distinguishing qualities of the Creator of the Universe, not less than His omnipotent power, is perfect truth, integrity; as He has made man's eternal happiness depend solely on his moral worth, and as He has so ordered. that in the private relations of life, integrity and truth are the basis

of respect, esteem and confidence between man and man, in fact the very foundation of the social system, it might be well supposed that public virtue would be of the utmost consequence to a State. Accordingly we find that in all ages the strength and prosperity of nations have kept pace with their public and private morals. Even small States, where a high moral tone prevailed, have had strength enough to resist the most powerful invaders. The philosophic historian, Polybius, while a captive at Rome, at the period of the greatest prosperity of that mighty republic, when comparing its institutions and morals with those of his degenerate countrymen, declared that the word of a Roman was worth more than the bond of ten Greeks with twenty witnesses. In the course of a single century these Romans lost their stern integrity, and public corruption and private vice prevailed, so that a republican form of government was no longer practicable. Even the iron despotism which succeeded, though it delayed, could not prevent the decay and destruction of the empire. A great French monarch regretted that he could not afford the luxury of an egg for his breakfast, because each one of his subordinates, through whom the money to be paid for it would have to pass, would embezzle so much of it as to render the sum expended larger than his treasury could bear. Santa Anna is understood to have declared, that the reason why he could not maintain any stable system of government in Mexico, was because the officials he was obliged to employ, appropriated to their own uses all the funds intended to be expended for the public service. The late Czar of Russia is reported to have complained that the interest of the empire suffered by reason of the peculations of his officers. Even the untiring industry, comprehensive intellect and eagle eye of the great Napoleon, could not prevent similar abuses. I maintain, then, fellow-citizens, that when our cotemporaries speak of us as pre-eminently honest, they assign to us that very quality which, of all others, is most important to the strength and prosperity of a State.

It is sometimes said, however, that we are behind the present age. If we have retained somewhat more than others the institutions and manners of our forefathers, I trust we have them kept with the stern integrity which distinguished the revolutionary age. Lord Chatham, when contrasting the iron barons of the olden time with the silken ones of his day, declared that he "would not give three words of their barbarous Latin for all the Classics." The earlier stages in a nation's existence are usually characterized by simple virtues and a stern abhorrence of vice and crime. As they become more refined they are usually relaxed and enervated, and are more tolerant to wrong-doers. Already in certain portions of the Union such is the sympathy felt for criminals, that the great effort is to make them as comfortable and happy as possible after the conviction. I hope that with us, sympathies will always be given to the innocent who may have suffered, and indignation felt towards the criminal. I trust that neither capital nor corporal punishment will ever be more sparingly used in our State than they are now. The relaxations that have already taken place have not, in my judgment, been advantageous to the public.

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