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engineering, facilitate greatly the labors of both instructer and pupil, and are indispensable to iborough instruction.
The committee next went into an examination of the department of artillery, and find that instruction is given in artillery tactics to the cadets of the firet class during the encampment, which usually commences in the mouth of Juve, and terminates ou the 1st of September following. During this time they are required to recite upon a system of field artillery, abridged from L'Allemand, at the same time that they are taught a course of pyrotechny, mortar exercise, and target practice, with guns of various calibers, as well as mortars and howitzers. Cadels of the other classes are also taught the drill of field artillery during this suspension of the other academic studies.
At the commencemeut of the academic term in the fall, about two months are devoted to the study of the theory and practice of artillery, and the fabrication of cannon, &c.; and from one month to six weeks in the spring, to a review of the same subjects, preparatory to the June examination. It is thought by the officer at the head of this departo ment that the time allowed for recitations, considering the difficulties and tance of the course, is insufficient, and that mucli which ought to be studied more thoroughly is necessarily passed over rapidly.
Artillery in Europe is considered a most inportant arm of service ; and much time and expense are devoted to its improvement. In our country there is no establishment provided by law especially for instruclion in artillery ; and all the education our officers receive in this branch of study is, with the exception of the mere drill of an artillery garrison, obtained at this place. This deficiency would seem to suggest the im portance of placing this department of the academy upon a enlarged and permanent basis.
It is also thought by the same officer, and approbated by the opinion of your committee, that it would be greatly to the advantage of this course of instruction if a permanent assistant were attached to it. If practicable, this should be done with as little delay as possible. It has been customary to detach several cadeis from the graduating class, who are detained here during the encampment, to aid in hearing recitations, and in giving practical instruction ; but, in the opinion of your committee. this is obviously objectionable. These assistants are still cadeis in feelings; and those whom they instruct regard them as equals and companions Nor is it probable they feel the responsibility that should influence and instructer, owing to iheir connexion with the department being so brief. One other circuinstance, which induces the committee to urge this point, is the fact thai, in addition to his appropriate duties, the officer at the head of the department is also charged with the con:mand of the United States troops on this station.
The supplies of ordnance stores furnished for the year are good in quality, and sufficient as tu quantity ; and within the last year, the department has been amply supplied with mortars, and guns of heavy caliber, whilst a requisition for field pieces has not been complied with, owing, it is thought, lo the circumstance of the ordnance department not having at its disposal guns of the proper caliber and model. The field battery now iu use is composed of pieces of various models, and their carriages are heavy and difficult to maneuvre by manual force. A field
battery of light six or four-pounders, mounted on light carriages, would facilitate the evolutions and manœuvres and relieve the cadets from a heavy labor, to which they have been heretofore subjected.
The twelve-pounders on hand are defective, and have been condemned; but, possessing no others, they have been continued in use, hy using small charges. A battery of four twelve-pounders and two twentyfour-pounder howitzers would render the department complete in this respect. All projectiles supplied for practice should be of the best qual.
ity ; without which there can be no satisfactory results in target firing, and, in consequence, no confidence on the part of the cadets in this branch of their course of study.
On drills, and in firing in the field, the cadets exhibited a thorough knowledge of the maneuvres and evolutions in this important arm of service ; and in their drawings and mathematical demonstrations at the black board they evinced high proficiency in the theory and practice of
gunnery. Their target firing and accuracy of throwing shells are very commendable, and afford unequivocal evidence of great zeal and ability on the part of the instructer, for which he is entitled to much credit.
The committee proceeded to an examination of the course of studies of the cadets as a corps of infantry. The organization is a battalion of four companies, having an appropriate number of officers and non-commissioned officers, agreeably to the regulations; and the whole is commanded by Major Fowle, of the third infantry, an officer of experience and high moral worth.
This corps exhibit on the held a perfect knowledge of infantry tactics, and perform all the evolutions of the line and of the battalion with facility and accuracy. Their appearance in dress, in condition of their arms and accouotrements, as well as in soldier-like bearing, is most highly gratifying, and deserves puch commendation.
The instruction imparted to the corps is given in the field and the reciting room in infantry tactics. In witnessing their recitation in the
hall of examination, the committee were of opinion that they fully understood the course, though in some instances deficient in explanation on subjects with which they exbibited an acquaintence in the field.
The committee would remark, in conclusion, that they are satisfied, findeed gratified, with the result of their inquiries into all the subjects (referred to it for investigation.
H. ATKINSON, Brig. Gen. U. S. A.
Chairman of the Commillee.
Course of Studies. The frequent detail of the course of study in this institution renders it unnecessary that your connittee should enter fully into the description of it, but at the same time, not to let pass unnoticed the proper encomium upon the able manner in which the professors acquit themselves to their own honor and the profit of the pupils. The most attentive examination into the various means of education have induced them to lay a particular stress upon the assistance offered by a good library, and chemical and philosophical apparatus. The former is but illy kept up by the present appropriation. It is true that all the standard works are here, but those ou literature are not to be found ; and as the earliest, and at the same
lime the most learned dissertations upon the improvements of the day are found in periodical works, we suggest them to be added.
The professor of chemistry, which is more an executive than a lawful appointment, stauds in a situation truly unpleasant; instead of being an independent professorship, it is in every respect subsidiary. In this department the committee propose the equalization of this professor with the others of this institution, and two assistants, one of whom should be the prosessor of mineralogy, with privileges in rank and pay.
When we look over the splendor and perfection of the philosophical apparatus, we cannot but be struck with the inappropriateness of the
The crowded state of the instruments, and the injury that they would sustain by moving them for the purposes of instruction, must induce this committee to ask of the proper authorities a room better suited to this important collection, and prevent the deterioration they necessarily undergo. Improvements in the science of natural philosophy, nearly every branch of which is illustrated by instruments, require also aid by an annual appropriation larger than that now allowed.
In this hasty survey of that which to them seemed their proper department, they did not offer any general reflections upon the institution as fitted to the purposes for which it was originally designed. Nor would they do so now, but for the allusion held up that this purpose has been perverted. Such is not the fact. If the sons of the wealthy enjoy these advantages, it is found 10 result from that influence that wealth exercises on every condition of things ; and if to the influential, it must spring from that same influence which those who bestow desire from those upon whom these gifts are bestowed. Another reason why this institution should be equally divided in its benefits to two classes of rich and poor, is, that the earlier education of the former fits them better to make returns to the country in fuller and more perfect information. This, we are aware, is not an unexceptionable rule, the first reward here being osten bestowed upon some one who has labored under the misfortune of being poor. Another, and by no means the least important reason for the appropriations, and the continued existence of this school, is the state of our physical condition as a country. Extensive in its geographical boundaries, unlimited in its wealth, and associated in feelings of political fraternity, we ought to be brought into constant intercourse. : What, we would ask, is more certain in producing this effect, ihan the aid of various departments of engineering? From our examination of this class, we see railroads, the application of steam, and all mechanical principles developed, and not one cadet who could not apply them to this all-important end.
In conclusion, then, your committee beg the continuance of this ioni. rution, and that all the necessary means of keeping it alive may be found includled in your report to the Secretary of War. Respectfully reported,
JOHN A. GRAHAM, Chairman.
From the Reporl on the Fiscal Concerns of the Academy. The Committee on Fiscal Concerus report ibai, in pursuance of the duty assigned to them, they have cursorily inspected the accounts of this institution between the 1st of January, 1834, and the 31st December,
1835, inclusive, and believe them to be correct; that the disbursements are in accordance with the appropriations made, and that a system of order and economy prevails throughout.
The regulations refuse to the cadet the possession or use of money, or the expenditure of it, but with the consent of the superintendent. The pay and subsistence of the cadet is $16 per month and two rations, equal to $12; making the total 928 per month. Each cadet provides a check book, wbich is arranged in tabular form, and exhibits in one view his expenditures and his means. When the cadet desires to obtain an article, he applies to the superintendent, whose approval is indicated by writing in the opposite column. The article is then furnished, and charged to the cadet by an entry in another column. The entries in this check book are constantly exhibited to the superintendent, and are vouchers upon which the treasurer pays to the persons who furnish the cadets.
It is the best évidence your committee can afford you of economy on the part of those charged with the administration of the institution, that there is an unexpended balance in the treasury of the last year's appropriation of about $8,000, $5,000 of which is intended for the supply of fuel, in part, for the ensuing year; for which, heretofore, no appropriation has been made in season for the necessities of the institution, leaving a balance of $3,000. From the statement made it will be perceived that the annual amount expended is estimated to average $118,566 52 ; that is to say, for the pay of professors, and pay and subsistence of cadets, $93,566 52; and for academic purposes, $25,000. The latter item embraces the sum necessary for the increase of the library, the philosophical apparatus, mathematical instruments, &c.
By a reference to the regulations, it will be perceived that each cadet, upon entering the institution, is required to furnish certain articles of clothing and furniture, necessary to his comfort. The cost of the abovementioned requisites is about $75. It is with regret your committee inform you that many cadets do not bring with thein, when they come to the institution, money for this use. The consequence is, the cadet is coinpelled to contract debts in anticipation of pay, which occasions him much embarrassment, and is unfriendly to that high feeling of independence which is the characteristic of a freeman and a soldier.
Your committee are satisfied that no beneficial reduction of expenses can at this time be effected in this institution. Indeed, when the great moral and political benefits emanating from it are considered, they are only surprised that so much advantage can be gained at such a cost. By this institution, the remote ends of our country are, if wot indissolubly bound, more firmly welded together. The youth of the North, the South, the East, and the West, are bere brought together, and united in friendship’s holy hands. The parents partake of their sons' feelings, and love those they have never seen), because their sons loved them The youth here taught enter the world with the highest aspirations, and, being fitted for any useful purpose, will attaiu the highest distinctions, and their hearts will recur frequently to the lovely scenes of their youth, and with gratitude to the country whose liberality educated them.
Your committee cannot but express their conviction that the beneficial resuirs of this jostitution are inestimable, and that true economy demands its support.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE NAVY.
NAVY DEPARTMENT, December 5, 1835. To the President of the United Stales :
SIR, Iu presenting for your consideration the condition of our pavy for the past year, it affords me great satisfaction to state that all the available means for its improvement have been successfully applied, and that its operations in protecting our commerce, although inadequate to the exigencies of that great and growing interest, have been highly honorable to the officers serving on our naval stations at home aud abroad.
Since my report of the 29th November, 1834, the ship of the line North Carolina has been thoroughly repaired in her hull, has been lately raken out of dock, and may be fitted for sea in eighly days.
The repairs of the ship of the line Independence, now in dock at Boston, have beeu commenced, and are progressing with great despatch. The frigates Constitution and Constellation have been equipped and sent to sea. T'he frigate United States has been prepared, and is ready for the reception of a crew. The hull of the frigate Columbia, at Washington, has been so nearly completed under the law for the gradual improvement of the navy, that she inay be launched in the course of this month. The sloops of war Peacock and Vandalia have been equipo ped and sent to sea. The sloop of war Warren is taking in her crew, and will sail in a few days. The sljops of war Concord and Boston have been prepared, and are ready for the reception of their crews; and the Lexington will be equally prepared in few weeks.
The repairs of the sloops of war Falınouth and Natchez, and of the schooner Grampus, have been recently commenced, and it is believed that in a few weeks they may be ready for the reception of their crews,
The building of a store-ship, authorized by a law of the 30th of June, 1834, has been commenced at Philadelphia, and a steam vessel has been commenced at New York, but will not be ready for service until some time in the summer of 1836.
The ships of the line Alabama, Vermont, Virginia, Pennsylvania, aud New York, and the frigates Santee, Cumberland, Sabine, Savannah, Raritan, and St Lawrence, are on the stocks, well protected from the weather, and as nearly completed as it is proper they should be, until it is determined to launch them.
For a more detailed statement of the condition of those vessels, as well as that of the ships of the line Franklin, Washington, Columbus, and Onin, and their nieans of repair, I beg leave to refer to a report of the Commissioners of the Navy Boari, here with submitted, (page 201,) and for the amount of timber, iron, and other materials procured for the gradual improvement of the navy, I refer to their report, (page 202.]
The siip of the line Delaware, the frigate Potomac, the sloop John Adams, and the schooner Shark, have been employed in the Mediterra. nean during the last year. The frigate Constitution sailer! for that station on the 19th of August last froin New York. The frigate United