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AFFAIRS OF THE MEDICAL DEPARTMENT,
For the year ending November 21, 1835. The annual supplies for the several hospitals were transmitted in due season and received in good order, and, with other property under the
charge of the officers of the department, have been fully and sa tisfactorily accounted for by the returns of the surgeons, which also show the hospitals to be amply supplied in every respect; and although the allowances as established by existing regulations have been materially increased and improved, and are of the best quality the market affords, the expenses of the department, on this account, have, in consequence of the system of responsibility adopted both in relation to supply and expenditure, been essentially less than heretofore. The average cost for supplies, during the last two years, has been $2 56 per man; and the average from 1819 to 1832 was $2 49 per man, while that of 1817 and 1818 was 96 19, and that of 1810 and 1811 wu8 84 50 per man; making a difference in favor of the present establishment or $14,000 per annum over that of 1811, and of $23,500 per annum over that of 1815.
The whole number of deaths reported in hospitals, during the first three quarters of the year was but 108, or a fraction over 15 per cent. on the aggregate of the army. Of these, 25 occurred at Jefferson Bar. racks, 19 ar Fort Gibson, 6 at the dragoon encumpment near Fort Gib. son, 6 at Fort Jesup, 5 at Fort Armstrong, 5 at the bay of St. Louis, and 42 at other posis ; of which 21 were from consumption, 16 from remitient and intermittent fever, 11 from iutemperance, 7 from cholera, and 53 from other causcs.
The law graduating the pay of the surgeons and assistant surgeons according to length of service, and requiring an examination by a medical board previous to appointment or promotion, is believed to have been of essential advantage to the army, by securing to it the talent and the professional knowledge which are absolutely necessary to the performance for the important duties that devolve upon an officer of the medical department as soon as he enters the service. Of 121 applicants, who had been recommended as qualified for appointment, and who were authorized to present themselves for examination, 50 have failed to attend, and, of the remainder, but 44, or somewhat over one-third of the whole number, bave been found qualified for the commission applied for. The army surgeon is liable, at any moment, to be called on to decide in the most critical cases, remote from all professional advice and assistance, and should not only he well grounded in the elenientary branches of his profession, but be sufficiently versed in the details of practice to prepare him for all its responsible contingencies the moment he reports himself for duty. The medical board have, therefore, been instructed to make a fult and accurate examination of every candidate on anatomy and phy
gy, surgical anatomy and surgery, theory and practice of medicine, materia medica and pharmacy, chemistry, obstetrics, and forensic medicine ; to report the positive merit of each candidate in the respective branches, and their relative merit on the whole examination, Agreeably to which they are appointed, and take rank in the department.
of the hospitals at the several military posts, many are entirely des. titute of suitable accommodations for the sick. A large portion of the buildings appropriated to this purpose have been erected a long time, and VOL. XIV.
were built of perishable materials, and in a hasty manner, to meet the exigencies of the occasion, while, at most of the works recently completed, no provision is made for the sick, who are necessarily placed in damp casemates, or in temporary buildings, entirely unfit to protect them froin the inclemencies of the weather, or to preserve the property under the charge of the medical officers.
Agreeably to instructions, the medical board recently made a special report on the condition of the hospitals at eighteen posts visited by them; and, of this number, but three were found to be well built and of good materials; and the internal arrangenient of these is essentially defective. Hospitals of the first class are now required at four, of the second class
at one, and of the third class at three of them. Those heretofore erected have afforded very imperfect accommodations in proportion to the expense incurred. It is therefore proposed that they be hereafter built on plans to be furnished by the department, adapted to the size of the command, and so constructed as to admit of enlargenient, and to afford the necessary wards and offices at the least additional expense.
INDIAN AFFAIRS. Operations under the Indian Deparlment, during the year ending
November, 1835. Suitable measures have been adopted for the execution of the treaty concluded at Chicago with the united natiou of Chippewa, Ottowa, and
Patta watamie Indians, and a considerable portion of them are now on the way to their destined home in the West. The residue may be ex. pected to follow speedily, so that the entire number may probably be congregated in their new domains in the course of the ensuing season. Meanwhile, the commissioner appointed to investigate some of the individual claims under the treaty has presented his report, which has given general satisfaction, and they have been paid, with the exception of
those disallowed by him, and of which, by his appointment, he was constituted sole arbiter.
Major J. Brookes has succeeded in concluding a treaty with the Caddo Indians, by which they cede their land in Louisiana to the United States, and agree to remove, at their own expense, beyond our territorial limits, never to return. This alternative may possibly save the small remains of the tribe from total extinction--a fate that seeined to be impending on a continued residence in their present location, surrounded by a populatiou that operates on the children of the forest like miasma on constitutions unused to its banerul influence.
A treaty has also been concluded by Governor Stokes and General Arbuckle, with the Camanches and Hirchetas, two of the three nations of Indians of the great Western Prairie. It is confidently expected that the Kioways, the third nation, will also become parties to the treaty ; and there are good grounds for believing that it will have a salutary tendency in repressing a long-indulged spirit for depredation, and it preserving peace a inong all the Indian tribes west of the Mississippi. Major Francis W. Armstrong was associated in the commission with the above named gentlenien. He had left home to attend the council,
but was suddenly arrested by disease, which ended in death, before he could reach his destination. In one of his communications to the Department, he inforined that the Choctaws had then receutly condemned
to death, and actually executed, two of their tribe, on a charge of witchcraft. Such it seems, had been the practice among them in preceding times, showing the unhallowed influence of the superstition and its concomitant horrors. Immediately on being apprized of the shockling transaction, he convened the chiefs in council, and prevailed upon them to abolish the custom, under penalty of death for being instrumental thereaster in such execution, and of the lash on whoever should prefer a charge of witchcraft against any of their tribe. To his decision aud firmness may be ascribed the termination of a superstitious custom that triumphs in the weakness of human nature, gives a sort of legalized sanction to the most barbarous acts, and calls for the immolation of innocent victims, as an acknowledgment of its paramount authority.
There has been no intermission of exertion to induce the removal of the Cherokees to the west of the Mississippi, in conformity with the policy adopted by the Government in favor of the Indians, and to which they form almost the sole exception. There can be little doubt that bad advisement, and the intolerant control of chiefs adverse to the measure, have conduced to the disinclination of a large portion of the nation to emigrate, and avail themselves of the obvious benefit in the contemplated change. Another portiou has viewed the measure in a more favorable light and enlisted in its advocacy with much warmth. Such a diversity
of sentiment could not fail to create collisions and animosity, and the effect has been, so far, a prevention of the requisite unanimity to bring the questiou to a favorable issue. In this state of things, a provisional treaty has been made with John Ridge and other influential members of
the nation, favorable to the cause of removal, and by them submitted to their brethren in May last. No accounts of their final decision have yet been received. The provisions of the treaty are so liberal, and the disadvantages of continuing among the white population, that has entrenched itself on their borders, and even juterspersed itself among them, are so glaring, that its cordial and speedy adoption might reasonably be anticipated. All proper efforts bave been made by the Government to insure this result, under the conviction that its acceptance would lead to their tranquility, prosperity, and happiness.
The year has passed without any narked event of a general character to communicate. The period has been a pacific one, with little of violence or bloodshed to record ; and the Indian condition is decidedly on the improvement, so far as relates to their previous characteristic traits.
The exclusion of ardent spirits, where it could be effected, bas done much good ; and on this exclusion, and the substitution of other pursuits for war and the chase, must depend their gradual growth and eventual proficiency in civilization-a consummation earnestly desired by every philanthropic mind.
All material information in relation to the Indian schools, participating in the benefit of the annual appropriation of $10,000 for the civilization of the Indians, is contained in the following statement, together with the particular disposition of the education funds set apart for that object in treaties with the Indian tribes.
INDIAN SCHOOLS. Stalement showing the number of Indian Schools, where established, by
whom, the number of Teachers and Pupils, and the amount allowed by the Government
1 22 $ 500 Senecas............ . New York. Baptist Gen. Conveut'n. 4. 140
T'uscaroras..............do.... ......do ........do....... 2 71
do..........do......do..... 2 16 Kickapoos.
.do..........do......do..... 2 6 400 Wyandots ..............do..........do......do ........ 2 40
Ditto.. Little Rapids, Mich. ......do......do .. 1 20
Ditto........ Ana Kwiwinau.......do......do.. ...... 14
Ditto.........Lapointe. ......do......do......... 5 46
1 21 1000 Ditto.......L'Arbre Croche...ovodo.......
11 21 Penobscots... Quoddy, Maine. do.....
300 Sioux....... .... St. Peter's.
300 Omahas....... Upper Missouri.
400 1 Student of Law, Buffalo.
50 1 ditto.......... Vermont.
100 2 ditto..Choctaw Acad'y.
nebagoes, "die: La Croix.................
Pupils. Choclaws, Choctaw Academy.
66 Miamies............. ......do....
6 Patta watamies......... do.... .................... 18 Seminoles.... .............do....
4 Creeks.... ......do....
15 Sacks, Foxes, loways, } do....
17 and others...... Cherokees........... ......do....
12 Chick asaws.............do........
Statement showing the amount and disposition of the Funds, provided by
Trealies, for the purposes of Education.
Date of Treaty.
Disposition of the Funda.
Miamies........... Oct. 23, 1826 % 2000 00 Choctaw Academy.
Sep. 20, 1828 | 1,000 00 Do.
nies, and others.. $ Aug. 12, 1827 | 1,500 00 Protestant Ep. Church. Menoinonies.......... Febr. 8, 1831 500 00
........... Oct. 24, 1832 500 00 School in the Nation. Shawa nees & Delw's. Oct. 26, 1832 500 00
Sep. 27, 1830 2,500 00 Do.
Sep. 27, 1830 10,000, 00 Choctaw Academy,
Chickasaws........... May 24, 1834 3,000 00 Choctaw Academy.
The preceding tables exhibit the disposition of the money appropriated for education, an the condition of those schools, from the teachers of which reports have been receiver. There are other schools among the Indian tribus, from which no returns have been niare. The whole number of children to whom instruction is given may be stated at seventeen hundred.
The communications transmitted by the teachers and Indian agents are generally satisfactory. That froin the intelligent agent at Michilimackinac is especially gratifying. There are eight establishments with
in the limits of his agency, stationed at different points between ļhe above island and Ana Kwiwinau, on the shores of Lake Superior. In the school at Michilimackinac the higher branches, geography, philosophy, and history, are successfully taught. 'Two of the pupils “have gone nut among their relatives in the north as teachers. Another has
been recently received as a catechist hy the American Board of Missions. A third now commands a vessel on the lakes. A fourth is studying medicine. Many of them read and write the English and Ojibwa lan. Iguages easily and correctly."
The establishments among the Shawances and Delawares, and the oiher tribes west and north of the Missouri river, appear to have been