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and foundation as the beacon ac Genesee river, has been commenced at the extremity of the west pierof Sodus, in Lake Ontario, and is three-fourths finished.
16. Osive go, Lake Ontario, New York.-The operations for the improvement of this harbor have been confined to the collection and proper distribution of stone for the construction of the mole and pier, and in paving the mole with large blocks of limestone. About 4,035 cords of stone have been applied io the first mentioned objects, and 1,115 tons of liinestone to the second. A sufficient quantity of stone has been deposited in the mole to render it secure the coming winter.
17. Monument on Steele s ledge.-On the 14th of October, this monument was completed, except putting in the copper bolts required for the upper courses of stone.
18. Piers at Kennebunk, Maine.-In making preparations to carry into effect the wishes of Congress in reference to the erection of the eastern pier at this place, it was ascertained that the appropriation was not sufficient to complete it upon the plan proposed ; and as the new work will be exposed, in its unfinished siate, to the action of the sea during the autumnal and winter storins, the propriety of commencing its construction was doubted. Nothing has, therefore, been done this season, but to procure materials and prepare the stone for the upper courses of the work. A large quantity of fine blocks of stone is now ready, and every thing is.prepared for commencing operations next spring, except contracting for the masoniy, whicn the available funds did not justify.
19. Merrimack River, Massa husetts. The pier leading from Salisbury shore to Badger's rock has been completed, and extended nearly two hundred feet into the river, terminating upon a ledge of rock one foot under water at low tide. When completed it will afford shelter and protection from the ice to three ships at a time, affording them a harbor of fifteen fett water at low tide.
20. Provincetown Harbor, Massachusetts.-The parts of the beach at this place that are planted with grass are represented as doing well, and as giving evidence that the object in view, viz: the protection of the harbor, will
be attained. Upwards of two thousand acres have been planted this season, and the estimates for next year contemplates the setting out of a similar quantity.
21. Plymouth Beach, Massachusetts.-Nine hundred feet of stone wall have been constructed on the west side of the breakwater at this place since the last report, and 1,500 feet of brush fence, for the purpose of arresting the drifting sand. Grass, for the same object, has been set out at various points
along the beach, to the extent of one thousand feet, which, together with the general state of the beach, is represented by the agent to be in good con: dition.
22. Hyannis Breakwater, Massachusetts. The present length of this break water is 1,050 feet, carried to its full
' height, and fifty feet partially finished, which will afford considerable protection to the coasting navigation. Many difficulties to its rapid progression this season are represented by the agent to have existed, and which he has used every exertion to overcome.
23. Hudson River, New York.-An examination of the river between the points where the principal obstructions to its navigation are found to exist, by the officer charged with its improvement, led to conclusions so different as to the realization of all the benefits anticipated by the projector of the plan, that it was deemed advisable to adopt the recommendation of this officer, and to refer the whole subject to the Board of Engineers. The plan reported by the Board, is confirmatory of the general principle of the original plan, yet differing, in some degire, in carrying those principles into execution. It contemplates, first, the removal of the existing deposites, and, secondly, the prevention of future accumulations. The means recommended for the accomplishment of these objects are, dredging, contracting the bed of the river by employing longitudinal piers, and protecting the channel shores from the action of the current. It was believed that, by the first process, a channel would be obtained adequate to all the wants of the river navigation: that the erection of piers and protection of the channel shores would preserve the channel, so formed, free from fu
ture obstructions. Early preparations were made for carrying this plan into effect; and as soon as a system of operations could be matured, called for by the importance and difficulty of such an undertaking, contracts were effected for carrying on the operation of dredging, for the delivery of stone, the formation of dams, and protection of the shores of the channel, as far as the available means would authorize. Owing to many unfavorable circumstances, these contracts have not been completed, though this great work inay now be considered in full operation; and from the change that has already occurred at the principal obstruction, the happiest results may be anticipated,
24. Harbors of New Castle, Marcus Hook, Chester, and Port Penn, Delaware River:The appropriation for the year 1835 was made available in April, and proved to be less than halt of the sum necessary to construct one pier. The plan has been persevered in of repairing the outer piers of these harbors with stone from the low water mark up, cutting a way the impediments to a free passage for the tides through the harbors. At Marcus Hook the southeastern pier has been repaired on this plan, and the two sluice-Ways between the outer piers have been removed; the effect of which has been not only to prevent any further deposite, but has caused, by the action of the tides, the removal of much of the mud from within this harbor lying above the level of the bottom of the openings made between the piers, serving as a preservation of the harbor more against future injary than any good that the commerce of ihe Delaware can derive from it in its present state. The
limited appropriation of the year could not be applied at Marcus Hook in effecting any useful
object whatever. The only manner in whieh it could be applied was at Newcastle, in carrying into effect so much of the plan recommended as it would accomplish in the removal of the obstructions to the free passage of the current through this harbor and between the piers, and repairing the northeastern pier with large stone from low water up. In furtherance of this application of the available means, a suice-way has been partiaily opened, the northeastern pier eut down to low water marli, a foundation prepared therton for laying the masses of stone for its reconstruction, and stone purchased for raising the work four fext high; afier accomplishing which, the funds will be so nearly absorbed as to render any further progress impracticable.
25. Ccracock Inlet, North Carolina.-Several years since, when the inlet was first examined with a view to the improveraert of its navigation, the passage by the Flounder slue und Wallac's channel was sek cted as the one on which, for many reasons it was best to operate. When the operations were commenced, but five and a half feet water could be carried through the slue. At the biginning of this year, a passage existed, one hundred and twenty fiet wiile, and seven and a half feet deep at low water on the shvalest part. lt had, for a year prevións, become the principal cliainel for vessels from Pamlico Bay, and
Nilise riveis. During the pres ni yiar, the passage, with the same average widtli, has been increased in depth to eight and a half feet at low water on the shoal st pait. Since the date of the last rport, by one boat, 31,683 cubic yards have been excavated, and removed to a «listance of seven hundred and fifty yards; ofthese, 26,443 eubic'yards liave been excavated and remored since the 22d of April, the date at wlich the work commenced this year.
26. Cape Fear River, North Carolina. -Some interruption to the operations on this river has necessarily occurred, resulting from the death of the officer charged with its improvemet. On the west side of the river, the jettees above Town creek have been compitted, and are generally in good order. On the cast side of the river the jettee at Reedy point is complete and in order. The one next below was cor structed, but having been destroyed by the current, &c., is not yet rebuilt. The three other jetteés contemplated by the plan have not been commenced.
27. Savannah River, Georgia.- The progress of the improvements on this river has no! answered the expectations of the project for the year. It was contemplated to complete the foundation of a permanent obstruction between Hutchinson and Argyle islands; and to remove, by diedging, the shoals at the Wrecks, Garden Bank, and upper Mud Flat. All the preliminary arrangements for the first mentioned object were made; materials were collected, and operations commenced, when the local engineer was made aware that. by the secon:1 article of the treaty of Beaufort, concluded in 1787, between the States of Georgia and South Carolina, no obstructions whatever should be made by the citizens of either State in the channel it was contemplated to close. A suspension of operations was ther fore required by the department; the subject was referred to the United States attorneys in those States, and a consequent application will be made to the respective Govern0:s at the suitable time. Although every exertion was made to hasten the construction of the dredge-boat, machinery, &c. for the other operations, owing to a scarcity of workmen, and a break.ge of a part of the machinery, when first put in operation, the sickly season cominced on the river before much could be perfected, and not more than 2,800 cubic yards of sand and mud has been removed from the Wrecks.
29. Inlani Pass between St. John's and St. Mary's, Florida.--The officer to whom was assigned the superintendence of the improvement of ihis pass coulil 10t spare his attention from the works on the Savannah river, to make an examination of the inpediments to be removed, until about the first of last June. So soon as the project submitted by him could receive the sanction of the department, measures were entered into for the construction of a dredge boai, and the necessiry mud flats for clearing out the channel; and it is anticipa. ted that the operation will be commenced by the first of nese January,
29. Ochlochney and Appalachicola River, Florislii.-The improvements of these rivers were brought to a close upon the completion of the operations reported last yi ar.
30. St.nrk's River and Harbor, Florida.-Th obstructions in the harbo corsisting of oyster bars and mud shoals,arid esiendi gorer' a space of about two mits, have been removed. A camal has been cut thrugh the natural bridge at Rock Haven, about six hui. cred yardsons, which opens the river and swamp forscow navigation surteen miles above the natural bridg', to a point about two miles south of the St. Augustine road. tands appropriated for these works have been expended, and operations brought to a close.
31. Mobile llarhor, dba?n?.--The operations under the pres: nt contractor have been pros:cuter? wiil much rigor and great suce: ss, notwithstanding the prevalence of bad? weather, and occasional damage sustained by the machinery from the contact of vessels. An addition of fifty fett has been add d to the pass, making at this tine a ckar passage of Jon hundred and fifty fiet in width, and ten feet in depth'; and it is anticipated that its width will be extended to two hundred fert by the first of January. The applicasion of the appropriation of 1835 will afford an additional width of two hundred and fifty fe til, so what the whole pass will be one hundred and lifty yards wide. This is deemed sufficient for the easy entrane and passage of any vessel; and its accomplishinent will prove very beneficial to the commerce of ihat country.
32. Pascagoula River, Mississippi.- As anticipated last year, the then existiug contract
for the improvement of the mouth of this river was abrogated, and a new arrangement made for carrying on the operations with greater vigor. A cut has now been made, forty-five feet wide, affording five and a half feet water at low tide, which is deemed sufficient for any vessel navigating the river; but from the nature of the sand flat through which the excavation is made, it is feared that the advantages which have resulted from dredging, will not be of long continuance. The present contractor has made every esertion to facilitate the work, and has encountered many difficulties from the unfavorableness of the season.
33. Ohio, Mississippi, and Red Rivers. The summer of 1834 was so far advanced when the appropriation for continuing the improvement of the navigation of the Obio, Missouri, and Mississippi rivers was made, that it was impracticable to make the necessary repairs oui the steam snag boats, and get them out of the Ohio river, until a rise of the water in that river in the month of November. On the 3d of November, the Archimedes began herope
rations at the mouth of the Ohio, and worked up the Mississippi. On the 19th of the saine month, the Hele polis commenced work at the saine place, and worked down the Mississippi.
Nine hundred and eighty seven snags were removed from the bed of the Mississippi, and 2,488 trees were telled from its caving banks, between the 3d of November, 1834, and the
lóth of March, 1835, at which time the Helepolis was laid up at St. Louis, Alissouri, for sale keeping and repairs, the water being too high for her to remove snags. The Archimedes closed her operations in the Mississippi on the 11th of January, 1835, and proceeded up the Red river to assist in the reinoval of the great raft from its bed, where she remained until the 25th of May last, when she was taken to Louisville, Kentucky, to which place it was necessary for her to go to receive repairs, which has been done. That boat has been at work in the Mississippi river, between the mouth of the Ohio and the Little Prairie, since the 21st of September, and has removed one hundred and three snags up to the 30th of that inonth. The Helepolis commenced operations at the mouth of tire Missouri river on the 29th of August last, and worked down to the mouth of the Ohio. From that piace she ran ciown one hundred miles to the Little Prairie, he re she again commenced work, and has proceeded down to island No.36. - In the distülice, she has worked two hundred and sixty iniles; trom the 29th August to the 30th of Septenbor, she has removed three hundred and seventy-two snags, and filled from the banks one hundred and one trees that were on the calge of the banks, and inust have failen ilito the river in a few days. The whole nuniber of snags removed from the Mississippi river in the year ending the 30th September, 1835, has been 1,462, a d 9,599 trees felled froin the banks. Nearly all the snags ihat have been removed during the last year were from the annual accumulation, occasioned by the falling in b:11ks, changes of channels, and trees rising from the bottom that bave been confined by various calists. Thegreatest portion of these 3112gs were produced by the cavings of the banks, which milst continue to be ule case until the timber is chared irom them. Extensive experiments have been made in felling the timber from the caving baliks. The result has proved eminently service able to the improvement of the navigation, and the preservation of the banks of the river. From the 1st of October to the 13th of November, 1834, the work on the dam at the head of Cumberland island was proceeded with. The channel at that place has been good during the low water of last suinmer, and will not be shoal at any rinie hereafier unless the dam should give way, wlrich now appears to be permanent ! secure. Xo apprehension is entertained of its taiure; still it nay be ile cessary
add sonie rock to it next summer. The other dams on the Ohio river have all answered the
purpose for which they were constructed, except that at Three Mile island, car the mouth of Green river, which has never yet been completed, but will be finished in a frw weeks hence. Preparations are all made for the removal of the remainder of the gråt raft in Red river, excepi the rebuilding of one of the small strambaars, which will not be finished before the 20th of November. The Souvenir and Java will proceed ti the raft about the
15th of November, and the other boat, which is rebuilding, will be taken there as soon as she is ready to : A.
31. arkansas River, drkansas Territory. In conseqner.ce of the continued engage
ents of the supi-rintendent charged with carrying on this improvement, nothing has yet been done towards the application of last year's a piiropriation. Arrangements have been maide, however, to work one of the steam snag-buais belonging to the Mississippi river, for two months during the coming winter, at this place, which, it is believed, will nsuch'advance the intersts of its navigation.
35. C'umbrrland Rixrr.-ihe obstructions to the navigation of this river at the point called Devil's Chute have been removed, with the exçeption of abcnt forty yards square of cock in the middle, which a rise in the river arrested. A wing-clam has been constructed 11 l.ine island, from the main, across the island chute; another from the foot of the first island to the head of the second, crossing ihi keel boat chute; and a third, from the foot of the second island to a small island below; so that the water is confined to the left shore along the whole extent of the islands. The steamboat President, sunk in the island chute at this place, has been raised, and a number of snags, logs, roots, &c., have been cleared out of the channel. The wing-dam at the head of Harpeth shoals has been added to and strengthened, and the one at the foot of the shca! completed, and appears to answer the
purpose intended. The repair of the dam at Davis's ripple was conimeticed and necessarily suspended from sickness and death among the laburers. All the smags, logs, &c., from Nashville island to Line island, have been removed, and it is anticipated that the obstrucsions in and near the channel, down to the mouth of the liver, will be removed this fall.
111. ROADS. 1. Roads from Detroit to Fort Gratiot, and to the mouth of Grand River in the Territory of Michigan.-The report stating the present condition of these roads has not yet been received.- I he first has been completed.
2. Road from Detroit to Chicago.- The appropriation last year was applied in securing) as goud a road as was practicable throughout its entire length; contracts were therefore made for constructing the worst part of the road first. In some instances it is merely to be grubbed and rendered even and smooth; in others, to be drained and turnpiked as here tofore ; and those sections of the road which were tolerably goud in their natural state have been o:nitted. The whole length of the road contracted to be constructed is twenty and a half miles, and is to be completed by the 201h of December, 1835. Bridges have been contracted for over Christian and Crooked creeks, which, when completed, will render that part of the road remaining to be finished last year, passable for vehicles of every description at all seasons of the year. No part of the last appropriation could be spared for the construction of a bridge at Bertraiid, over the river St. Joseph's, which will require an additional sum of 84,000, an estimate for which is accordingly presented.
3. Saginaw Road, Michigan Territory.--The section of road put under contract this year passes over the lowest land on the route from Detroit tu Saginaw; and the available funds would only authorize ten miles of this road to be put under contract. The road is to be opened one hundred feet wide ; fifty feet of which is to be grubbed and cleared of timber, brush, &c., and, where it passes over swamps and marshes, it is to be causc wayed. A bridge over Cass river is in a state of forwardness, and will be completed this year, as well as all the parts of the road now under construction.
4. Territorial Road from Sheldon to the mouth of St. Joseph's.-Contracts for opening and constructing those parts of this road which most required it were made in December last. Parts of eighty-four and a half miles were put under contract, which, with one or two exceptions, are completed. bridges over Kalamazoo, in two places, are constructing, as well as over some of the small streams on the route. The road is now generally good, and the funds last appropriated have been of great service to the public.
5. Territorial Road from Niles's to the mouth of the river St. Joseph's.-Eighteen and a half miles of this road were pnt under contract last November, which comprist's nearly al the low land along the line; they are now nearly finished, and will be entirely so before winter. Bridges are constructing over the small streams, but, to complete the road, a bridge is necessary across the Si. Josepli's at Besriin.
6. Territorial Road from Clinton to the rapids of Grand River.-Owing to the length of time occupied in locating this road, the sale of contracts for its construction did not likt place till about the Ist of May last. Parts of twenty miles, together with two bridgis over the river Kaisin, ono over Grand river', and seven smaller streams, were then put undt, contract, to be completed by the 1st of the present month, which, it was alticipated by the superintendent, would be finished by the time fixed.
7. Road from La Plaisance bay to the road leading from Detroit to Chicago. The whole of this road is either completed or under contract; the contracts to be fultilled, and the road entirely finished by ihe 31st of December, 1835. Thirty-three miles, wjih all the bridges, culverts, side drains, &c., are now completed, and fifteen mile's more, embracing the whole length, are in progress of construction. Such of the road as was made on the plau directed in 1833 is now and will continue in fine condition. This road has very essentially contributed to produce the unexampled sale of public lands within the district in which in lies, and is now one of the great thoroughfares for Michigan, Iridiana, and Iilirois.
8. Road from Port Lawrence to Allrinn.–This work, originally a territorial road, las had expended on it 89,913 08 of the 810,000 appropriated towards its construction in 1834. Twenty-one and a half miles have beep constructed, principally through a swamp, and some labor bestowed on about fuur miles more; the balance of the funds will be applicu on those parts most requiring it.
9. Road from Vistula (now Toledo,), westwardly, to the Indiana State line.--Of the 810,000 appropriated by Congress to aid in the construction of this road, 89,4-46 30 have been expended. Fifty-two miles were put under contract, to have such labor bestowed on them as was deemed sufficient to make the road passable. The contracts on forty-six and a half miles have been fulfilled, and five and a half are yet in progress, to pay for the completion of which the unexpended balance is deemed sufficient.
10. Road fom Line creek to the Chattahoochie river, Alabama.--Forty five iniles of this road were completed last December, and are reported to be in good condition ; the rtmainder of the distance to the Chattahoochie (eighteen miles) has been opened by the citizens of that country.
11. Road from the north boundary line of Florida to Appalachicola, Florida.-The survey of this road not having been finished, nothing has yet been done towards its construction.
12. Road from Memphis to the St. Francis river.-The operations on this road lave been prosecuted as rapidly as circumstances would allow; a space of one hundred and sixty feet wide has been cleared throughout its entire extent, except two and a half miles.
A bieadth of thirty-four feet, along a given line, is cleared of all slumps, roots, &c., to receive the embankment. Contracu are made for the whole quantity of embankınent,
Officers, &c., of Engineer Department.
amounting to one million twenty-one thousand nine hundred and ninety-four cubic yards as well as for the construction of all the bridges except those over Sand Slough, and some of the more unimportant ones on the east side of Blackfish lake. It is anticipated that the whole cost of the work, when completed, will come within the amount appropriated for its construction.
13. Cumberland Road in Indiana and Illinois.-In Illinois but little was done during the fall and winter of 1834. The continued rains in the spring and early part of the summer, prevented much from being done before July: sickness among the laborers caused the operations to linger through the summer. There have been 58,302 cubic yards of earth exeavated, and 56, 105 cubic yards made into embankment. There have also been 5,777 rods of road worked upon, soine finished, some partly finished, and the sod only removed from the other. For stone for bridges, culverts, and metalling, there are nine quarries under operation, all yielding fine stone. There have been 6,691 perches of stone quarried, and 2,546 perches of stone hauled
to the road side. An arched culvert on the eleventh mile, of fifteen feet span, is under construction. A large quantity of stone has been col. lected for the bridge over the Kaskaskia, at Vandalia : as large a force as could be procur. ed, has been employed in cutting stone during the year.
The operations on the Cumberland road in Indiana, up to the 30th September, 1835, progressed as rapidly, and resulted as favourably as could have been anticipated. There have been 381,512 cubic yards of earth excavated, and 352,596 cubic yards made into embankment. Four thousand five hundred and fifty-nine rods have been finished, and are ready for ti.e reception of the metal. Sandstone has been condemned as unsuitable for the constructions on the road, and the use of lime stone introduced. On the extreme east of the road, the supply of stone will be complete: it will become scarce it approaches Indianapolis. From the fifteenth mile west of Indianapolis to the Illinois State line, there will be no difficulty in getting all that will be wanted. The Simon's Creek bridge, and the White Water bridge are completed. A few cuiverts have been built on different parts of the road. A large supply of stone has been collected for several important bridges. The laborers work without ardent spirits, which they are not allowed to bring to the work.
14. Cumberland Road west of the Ohio.-Considerable progress has been made towards the completion of'the road from Zanesville to the Indiana State line.
15. Cumberland Road east of the Ohio.-The quantity of work done on this part of the road, during the year, consists of quarrying, hauling, breaking to four ounces, and putting on the road, two hundred and twenty-tight thousand perches of metal; preparing forty ubousand other perches of metal on the side roads ready to put on; delivering iwenty-eight thousand seven hundred perches of stone on the side roads tu be broken to four ounces metal; constructing four thousand seven hundred and thirteen perches of masonry, in bridges, culverts and parapet walls; cutting and laying three thousand six hundred and forty-four fett (running measure) of heavy coping; and relaying twelve hundred and seven feet of old coping.
Northern boundary of the State of Ohio.- As soon as the officer to whom this duty was assigned had inade the necessary arrangements for the prosecution of the improvement of the Hudson river, this service was resumed, and the observations for determining the line were completed during the sum er: this oilicer has not yet had time to finish his calculations and inake his final report on the subject.
Mor ument to the memory of General Brown.-l'his monument is complete, and in its place.
Officers and Agenls, Civil and Military, not numed in the Army Register,
employed under the Engineer Department Joseph G. Swift, improvements at Big Sodus Bay, and Genesee river, New York, 80 00 per day, and two and a half per cent. on disbursements, not to exceed 82 00
day.. Ezra Crowell, Hyannis luarbor, Massachusetts, 8200 perday, and two and a per
cent. on disbursements, not to exceed 82 00 per day.
do. 82 50 per day for superintending,
do. E, Young,
do. S. Dickerson,
do. B. Palmer, Kennebeck river, Maine,
two and a half per cent. on disbursements, not to exceed 8200 per day.
per annum, and two and a half per cent. on disbursements, not to exceed 82 00 per day. John Martin, superintendent of the Road from Line, Creek, Alabama, to the Challaliooo
chie, Georgia, 81,000 per annum.