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TABLE OF CONTENTS. XV

Jo. or

nuaiira. Pioi

112 Phosphorogenic Rays—Phosphoroscope 216

113 Velocity of Light—Its Measurement] 220

114 Length and Frequency of Undulations 221

115 Interference 225

116 Colours of thin Plates 228

§ II. Double Refraction —Polarization . 230—254

117 Double Refraction 230

118 Influence of Crystalline Form on Double Refraction . . . . 233

119 Polarization of Light by Double Refraction ib.

120 Polarization by Reflection 234

121 Distinction between Common and Polarized Light .... 236

122 Polarization by a Bundle of Plates 237

123 Effect of the Analyser in rotating the Plane of Polarization . ib.

124 Colours of Polarized Light ib.

125 Colours in Plates cut perpendicular to the Axis 242

126 Coloured Rotatory (Circular) Polarization 246

127 Magnetic Polarization 253

§ III. Influence of Light on Chemical Attrac-

tion—Photography 254—281

127a Supposed Influence of Light on Crystallization 254

127 J Chemical actions of Light ib.

127c Photo-chemical Induction 255

12 7</ Influence of Light on Mixtures of Gases ib.

i27« Deoxidizing Influence of Light on Metallic Compounds . . 257

127/Photogenic or Photographic Printing 258

lijg Talbotype or Calotype Process 259

127A Photography on Collodion 261

1271 Use of Albuminized Plates in Photography 263

127J; Photographic Engraving and Lithography ib.

127/ Autotype 264

127m Woodbury-type 265

I27« Heliotype . . , ib.

1270 Other Photographic Processes—Chrysotype ib.

IMP Daguerreotype—Production of Images on Metallic Plates . 266

1279 Prismatic Analysis of the Chemical Effects of Light . . . 268

i27r Identity of Fluorescent and Chemical Rays 270

127* Photographic Transparency of various Media 271

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i2"jt Photographic Spectra of the Elements 276

127M Extinction of Chemical Rays 278

1271; Opposite Effects of the Red and Violet Ends of the Spectrum 279

127a) Action of Solar Spectrum on Vegetable Colours . . . . 281

CHAPTER V.

Heat 381—443

128 General Effects of Heat 281

129 Sources of Heat—Mechanical Equivalent of Heat .... 282

130 Nature of Heat—Mechanical Theory of Heat 286

$ I. Expansion—Measurement of Tempera-

ture 288—315

131 Difference between Heat and Temperature 288

132 Expansion of Solids 289

133 Expansion of Liquids 290

134 Expansion of Gases 293

135 Air Thermometers—Differential Thermoscope 16.

136 Principle on which the Thermometer is Graduated .... 295

137 Tests of a good Thermometer 296

138 Different forms of Thermometer 297

139 Increase in the Ratio of Dilatation with Rise of Temperature . 299

140 Pyrometers—Daniell's Pyrometer 301

141 Comparative Range of Temperature 302

142 Pressure exerted by Expansion 303

143 Anomalous Expansion of Water 304

144 Correction of Volume of Gases for Temperature 305

145 Adjustment of Volume to Changes of Temperature .... 306

146 Process of taking Density of Gases ib.

147 Determination of the Density of Vapours 310

§ II. On the Equilibrium of Temperature 315—346

148 Equilibrium of Temperature 315

149 Conduction, in Solids, Liquids, and Gases 316

150 Inequality in the Rate of Conduction in different Directions . 319

151 Convection of Heat 321

152 Currents in Gases:—Ventilation 322

153 Trade Winds—Land and Sea-breezes 324

154 Gulf Stream 325

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155 Radiation of Heat 326

156 Reflection of Heat D.

157 Absorption of Heat 327

158 Connexion between Absorption and Radiation 328

159 Formation of Dew 330

160 Law of Cooling by Radiation 332

161 Relative Absorbability of different kinds of Heat 333

162 Transmission of Heat through Screens—Diathermancy . . . 334

163 Diathermancy of Gases and Vapours 338

164 Influence of Structure on Diathermancy 340

165 Refraction of Heat 341

166 Separation of Radiant Heat from Light 342

167 Double Refraction and Polarization of Heat 345

167a Repulsion caused by Radiation ib.

§ III. Specific Heat—Latent Heat . . 346—421

168 Specific Heat 346

169 Methods of Measuring Specific Heat . 347

169a Causes of Variation of Specific Heat 349

170 Variation in amount of Specific Heat according to Physical State 353

171 Specific Heat of Gases and Vapours 355

172 Relation of Specific Heat to Atomic Weight 357

173 Molecular Heats of Compounds 361

174 Disappearance of Heat during Liquefaction—Latent Heat . . 365

175 Freezing Mixtures 368

176 Regelation of Ice 373

177 Evolution of Heat during Solidification 375

178 Disappearance of Heat during the formation of Vapour . . 16.

179 Ebullition 377

180 Influence of Adhesion on the Boiling Point 379

181 Influence of Solids in Solution upon the Boiling Point . . . 380

182 Influence of Pressure on the Boiling Point 381

183 Measurement of Heights by the Boiling Point 382

184 High Pressure Steam 383

185 Production of Cold by Vaporization f . . 385

186 Measurement of the Latent Heat of Vapours 387

187 Latent and Sensible Heat of Steam 390

188 Distillation—Coffey's Still 391

189 Evaporation 396

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