Chemical physics

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Longmans, Green, Reader, and Dyer, 1877

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Contenido

Law of Multiple Proportions
17
Law of Equivalent Proportions
18
Equivalent numbers
20
12a Hypothesis of Atomic Constitution of Matter
22
Symbolic Notation
23
o
24
Law of Volumes
27
Application of the Law of Equivalent Proportions
31
Equivalency of the Elements
34
16a Atomicity of the Elements
35
CHAPTER II
37
English System of Weights and Measures
38
18a Unit of Force
40
The Balance
41
to
42
Density of Liquids
43
PARAGRAPH PAG1 ?2 Density of Solids
44
The Hydrometer
46
Correction for Weighings taken in Air
47
ElasticityMechanical Properties of Gases 4869
48
Boyles or Mariottes Law of Elasticity in Gases
49
Repulsion among the Particles of Gases
51
The AirPump
52
AirPump with a Single Barrel
53
The Condensing Syringe
56
The Household Pump
58
The Pressure Gauge and Barometer
59
The Syphon
61
Pressure of the Atmosphere
62
The Pneumatic Trough
63
The Gas Holder
64
The Mercurial Trough
65
Density of the Atmosphere at different heights
67
Cohesion 697a 43 Measurement of Cohesion
69
Reunion of Divided Surfaces
70
45a Viscosity of Fluids
71
Influence of Heat on Cohesion
72
AdhesionDiffusion of Liquids and Gases 73127
73
Cements
74
nuMira AS1 49 Capillarity
75
Variations in Capillarity
76
Capillary Depression of Mercury
77
Cohesion of Liquids
79
Influence of Surface on Adhesion
80
Solution
82
Adhesion between Liquids
85
Cohesion Figures
86
Diffusion of LiquidsMode of Measuring it
87
Laws of the Diffusion of Liquids
89
PiRAGEAPn pies 85 Isomorphous Groups 151
90
OsmoseEndosmosis and Exosmosis
93
DialysisCrystalloidsColloids
98
Flow of Liquids through Capillary Tubes
100
Adhesion of Gases to LiquidsSolubility of Gases
104
Adhesion of Gases to Solids
106
Desiccation of Gases
109
Diffusion of Gases ib 68 Effusion of Gases
114
Transpiration of Gases
115
Passage of Gases through Diaphragms
117
70a Passage of Gases through Metallic Septa
120
Separation of Bodies by Cold or HeatCryohydrates
125
Crystallization 127157
127
Modes of obtaining Crystals
128
Separation of Salts by the process of Crystallization
130
Sudden CrystallizationNuclei 13 I
131
Circumstances which modify Crystalline Form
132
Change of Volume in the act of Solidification
133
Dissection of Crystalline Masses
135
Structure of CrystalsCleavage
136
Goniometers
137
The Reflecting Goniometer
138
Symmetry of Crystalline Form
139
Classification of Crystals
141
Isomorphism
148
4 Chemical Bearings of Isomorphism
150
Dimorphism
152
Allotropy
154
CHAPTER IV
157
Sources of Light
158
Theories of LightUndulations
160
Illustration of Undulations from Sound
161
Varieties of SoundQualityPitch
162
Mechanism of Undulation
163
Transparency and Opacity
165
Law of the Diminution of Light by Distance
166
Rumfords Photometer ib 97 Reflection from Plane Surfaces
167
Reflection from Curved Surfaces
169
Law of the Sines
171
Refraction at Inclined Surfaces
173
Wollastons Method of ascertaining Refractive Power
175
Prismatic Analysis of Light
176
Theory of ColoursAbsorption
177
105a Dispersive Power 4
180
rose Influence of Chemical Composition on Refraction
181
Fixed Lines in the SpectrumFraunhofers LinesBright Lines
182
Spectrum AnalysisSpectroscope
190
107a Influence of TemperatureSpectra of Compounds
195
Projection of Spectral Lines on Screen
198
KirchhoiFs Theory of Fraunhofers Lines
199
109a Spectroscopic Observations of the Sun
204
no Change in the Refrangibility of LightFluorescence
212
in Complex Nature of the Solar Spectrum
216
Interference
225
Influence of Crystalline Form on Double Refraction
232
Effect of the Analyser in rotating the Plane of Polarization
239
Coloured Rotatory Circular Polarization
246
Magnetic Polarization
253
lijg Talbotype or Calotype Process
259
127m Woodburytype
265
127 Photographic Transparency of various Media
271
BAGBAPH 1272 Photographic Spectra of the Elements
276
127U Extinction of Chemical Rays
279
jw Action of Solar Spectrum on Vegetable Colours
281
Sources of HeatMechanical Equivalent of Heat
282
Nature of HeatMechanical Theory of Heat
286
ExpansionMeasurement of Tempera ture 288315
288
Expansion of Solids
289
Expansion of Liquids
290
Expansion of Gases
293
Air ThermometersDifferentia Thermoscope 16
295
Tests of a good Thermometer
296
Different forms of Thermometer
297
Increase in the Ratio of Dilatation with Rise of Temperature
299
PyrometersDaniells Pyrometer
301
Comparative Range of Temperature
302
Pressure exerted by Expansion
303
Anomalous Expansion of Water
304
Correction of Volume of Gases for Temperature
305
Adjustment of Volume to Changes of Temperature
306
Process of taking Density of Gases 16
310
On the Equilibrium of Temperature 315346
315
Conduction in Solids Liquids and Gases
316
Inequality in the Rate of Conduction in different Directions
319
Convection of Heat
321
Ventilation
322
Trade WindsLand and Seabreezes
324
Gulf Stream
325
MASUn Pir M
326
Absorption of Heat
327
Connexion between Absorption and Radiation
328
Formation of Dew
330
Law of Cooling by Radiation
332
Relative Absorbability of different kinds of Heat
333
Transmission of Heat through ScreensDiathermancy
334
Diathermancy of Gases and Vapours
338
Influence of Structure on Diathermancy
340
Relation of Specific Heat to Atomic Weight
357
Molecular Heats of Compounds
361
Disappearance of Heat during LiquefactionLatent Heat
365
Freezing Mixtures
368
Regelation of Ice
373
Evolution of Heat during Solidification
375
Ebullition
377
Influence of Adhesion on the Boiling Point
379
Influence of Solids in Solution upon the Boiling Point
380
Influence of Pressure on the Boiling Point
381
Measurement of Heights by the Boiling Point
382
High Pressure Steam
383
Production of Cold by Vaporization f
385
Measurement of the Latent Heat of Vapours
387
Latent and Sensible Heat of Steam
391
DistillationCoffeys Still
394
Evaporation
396
PAWAGKlPff PAGR 190 Daltons Law of the Pressure of Vapours
398
Limit of Evaporation
400
Circumstances which influence Evaporation
401
Dew Point
405
Daniells Hygrometer
406
Wet Bulb Hygrometer
407
Liquefaction and Solidification of Gases
409
Pressure exerted by Condensed Gases
412
Spheroidal State produced by Heat
418
Atomic Relations of Heat evolved in Chemical Combination 421443
421
Early Experiments
423
Researches of Favre and Silbermann
425
Quantities of Heat Evolved during Combustion
427
Influence of Dimorphism
429
Heat Evolved during Decomposition
430
Indirect Methods of Estimating Calorific Equivalents
432
Mercurial Calorimeter of Favre and Silbermann
434
208a Bunsens Calorimeter
435
Heat Evolved during Metallic Precipitation
436
Calorific Equivalents of Elements
439
Heat Evolved during the Reaction of Acids and Bases
440
Heat Absorbed during Solution of Salts
442
Heat Evolved during Solution of Gases
443
CHAPTER VI
444
Magnetism 445455
445
Magnetic Induction
446
Preparation of Magnets
448
Influence of Molecular Actions ou Magnetism
450
Measurement of the Magnetic Intensity of a Bar
451
Declination or Variation
452
Variation in the Intensity of the Earths Magnetism
453
Static Electricity 456505
456
Insulators and Conductors
458
ElectroscopesCoulombsPeltiers ElectrometerThomsons Quadrant Electrometer
461
Electrical Hypotheses
462
Electrical Induction
464
Faradays Theory of Induction
466
Distribution of the Electric Charge
467
Electrical Machines
470
Extensive Operation of Induction
472
The Electrophorus
473
Holtzs Machine
474
Spread of Induction
475
The Leyden Jar
477
Measures of Electricity
481
Specific Induction
483
Various Modes of Discharge
485
Conduction ib 240 Development of Heat
486
Disruptive Discharge
488
Velocity of Discharge
490
Striking Distance
491
Convection
494
Other Sources of ElectricityHeatFracture
495
Electricity from Chemical Action
497
Electricity of Vapour
498
Atmospheric ElectricityLightning Rods
499
Aurora Borealis
504
Galvanic or Voltaic Electricity 505611
505
rABiQEArn PASS 252 Activity of the Conducting Wire
507
Action of the Conducting Wire on a Magnetic Needle ib 254 The Galvanometer S9
509
Summary of the Effects produced by the Conducting Wire
513
the Crown of Cups
514
Electric Disturbance produced by Contact
515
Necessity of Chemical Action to produce Voltaic Action
517
Energy of the Current proportionate to the Chemical Activity
520
Protection of Ships Sheathing
522
Circuits with One Metal and Two Liquids
527
General Summary
529
Groves Gas Battery ib 265 Daniells Battery
532
Groves Nitric Acid BatteryBunsens Coke Battery
534
Smees Battery
535
Resistances to the Voltaic Current
536
Differences between a Simple and a Compound Circuit
539
Ohms Theory
542
Chemical Decomposition
543
The Voltameter
545
Further Application of Ohms Theory
547
Wheatstones Rheostat and Resistance CoilsStandard of Resistance
549
Processes of Voltaic Discharge
553
ConductionConductivity of Solids
555
Heating Effects in Wires
561
Electric Conductivity of Liquids
562
Conductivity of Gases
564
Electric Light
565
Chemical Actions
571
Laws of Electrolysis
572
Relative Decomposability of Electrolytes
576
Electrolysis of Salts
578
Bearing of Electrolysis on the Theory of Salts
580
Unequal Transfer of Ions during Electrolysis
585
Electrovection or Electrical Endosmose
587
nAQitirH pagb 289 Secondary results of Electrolysis
590
Nascent State of Bodies
593
Theory of the Electrical Origin of Chemical Attraction
595
Electrotype or Voltatype Processes
598
Preparation of Moulds for Electrotyping
600
Electrozincing c
602
Electroplating
603
Electrogilding
605
Resemblances between Static and Voltaic Electricity
606
Delucs Dry PileZambonis Pile
607
Water Battery
609
ElectroMagnetism 611633
611
Tangent Galvanometer
612
Influence of a Conducting Wire in Exciting Magnetism
613
Formation of ElectroMagnets
614
Molecular Movements during the Magnetization of Bars
615
Laws of ElectroMagnetism
616
Amperes Theory of ElectroMagnetism
618
Mutual Influence of Wires which are conveying Currents
619
ElectroMagnetic Rotations
622
Electric Telegraph
624
MagnetoElectricity 63a656
632
MagnetoElectric Induction
633
RuhmkorfFs MagnetoElectric Induction CoilStratified Elec tric Discharge
635
Henrys Coils
643
Aragos Rotations
647
MagnetoElectric Machines
649
Absolute Measures of ElectroMagnetic Quantities
655
ThermoElectricity 656662
656
ThennoMultiplier
659
Reduction of Temperature by the Electric Current
661
Eleotrioal Phenomena exhibited by the Torpedo
662
Magnetism of bodies in general
668
Influence of Structure on Diamagnetism
674
Appendix
683
Comparison of Centigrade and Fahrenheit Thermometers
689
Simple Voltaic Circuits 506
694

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