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continuance and prodigious increase. The disease is fully and plainly described : and the various means by which it is propagated, as well as the methods of cure and prevention, are cleariy pointed out. Our sensible and benevolent Author has printed this account on a fingle iheet, and distributed it through chose parts of the country where the disease is most prevalent. Art. XII. Cafes of Aneurisms, with Remarks, by Dr. Donald Monro,
Physician to St. George's Hospital, London. "We have in this paper ten histories, to some of which are rivhjoined the appearances on dissection, and engravings of the Heased arteries. We have likewile observations on the different kinds of aneurisms, whether true, fpurious, or mixed, with references to those authors who have written on the fame fubject. Art. XI). An Attempt to determine by Experiments, how far fome
of the most powerful Medicinesa viz. Opium, ardent Spirits, arid elential Oils, affect Animals by atling on those Nerves to : which they are primarily applied, and thereby bringing the qist of the nervous System into Sufferance, by what is called Sympathy of Nerves ; and how far these Medicines affett Animals, after being takın in by their absorbent Veins, and mixed and conveyed with their Blood in the Course of its Circulation ; with, Physiological and practical Remarks; by Dr. Alexander Monro, Physician and Proffor of Physic and of Anatomy in the University of Edinburgh.
Our ingenious physiologist has taken a great deal of pains to afcertain the points in question. Without entering, however, into any detail of his experiments, we shall lay before our Readers the General Corollaries, collested from the Remarks made on the foregoing Eaperinents with Opiurn, ardent Spirits, and effene. tial Oils
11. It is obvious that the effects of those medicines on frogs, for example of the opium and ardent spirits, in an over dose, Ale airalagous to their effects on men and quadrupeds.
apo plied to an outward or inward-part of its body.
"3. The cifects of the fame quantity of those medicines are more ipeely when poured into the prime vie, than when applied to the sound kin, agreeable to the common doctrine. Yot,
4. The reason given for it, viz. that the prime via are niuic fucculent and fenfible, is extremely fallacious; for,
congh the great guts can, without disorder, bear some shinys which are very oftenfive to the Romach; yet opium, and probably many other medicines, affect frogs by the ans, sooner and perhaps more than by the mouih. Ard an injection into tile cavity of the abdomen, or, to speak more accurately, into,
the cavity of the peritoneum, which is very dense, and is said to be insensible of cutting, laceration, and erofion, affects ani animal much more quickly, and with greater violence, than when poured into the prima via.
• Hence the effects of medicines are not in all cases proportioned to the general degree of sensibility of the organs to which they are applied; nor to their laxity or number of vessels nor, perhaps, \can any universal rule be formed; each organ feeming to be endowed with its peculiar sense.
's. All the above-named medicines can affed animals in two ways : and all can affect them in either way to such a degree, as to render them insensible and motionless; or, if long enough applied, to kill them.
One way, is by acting on these nerves to which they arë primarily applied, so as to bring all the other nerves to sympathize, independent of their mixture with the blood.
• The other way, is by their being absorbed, mixed, and conveyed with the blood, independent of any influence on the nerves of the part to which they are primarily applied.
' 6. But, as animals are soonest, and to the greatest degree, affected by those medicines, whilst the absorbent, the circulating, and the nervous systems all duly exercise their functions ; it follows thence, and it is also reasonable to suppore, that on a sound animal they operate in both these ways.
67. To determine the degree in which thele medicines act on a sound animal in either of these ways, or even to which of them we are to ascribe the greatest effect, is difficult; because, we must suppose, that by impairing the nervous infuence, the absorption is diminished in most instances, or perhaps increased in fome instances, where the medicine is very irritating; and we have found, for certain, that the nerves of the extremities can scarcely propagate the most violent impression to the other Derves, if the circulation in that part is stopped : And, therefore, we must suppose, that, when the nerves of the abdomen are impressed by a medicine, after cutting out of the beart, the fympathy of the other nerves with them is less remarkable chan it would be, were the animal entire. So that we cannot, in
way, have a perfect idea of the effect of a m dicine upon
nerves alone ; and, although we knew the exact effect on cae part, we could not, a priori, det smine what it would be
'8. We may indeed presume, that the effects of all the forementioned medicines, when they are applied to the found outer furface of the body, are chiefly owing to their auforption, Dikure, and conveyance with the blood, sinie thiy operate as violently, and nearly as foon, when the nesves of the part to which they are applied are cut, as when they are entire.
on another part.
• If, again, they are applied to the more sensible inward surface of the prime vie, they may probably operate more speedily, and, in some cases, more violently, through the nerves alone, than by their being absorbed and conveyed with the blood.
And whether a medicine is applied inwardly or outwardly, the quantity of it, or of its vehicle, or the nature of the pare to which it is applied, will probably alter the proportional effect, in the one or in the other way.
• 9. The sympathy of the nerves depends chiefly, and al. most entirely, on their connection at their origin. At the same time, it has appeared, that, in some places, neighbouring nerves more readily sympathize than distant ones.
10. As the opium has a surprising influence over the heart and arterious system, when directly applied to them; and these effects, though greater, are similar to the effects of this medicine when absorbed : We may infer, that, when it is abforbed, mixed, and conveyed with the blood, its effects are almost solely to be ascribed to its operation on the nerves of the heart, and vessels through which it is carried. And, by analogy, the like is probable of many other medicines.
• 11. I am far from denying in the last corollary, that these medicines produce any alteration on the texture of the Auids; on the contrary, I am persuaded they do alter them, and that, by long continued use, those alterations may be so considerable, aś to effect the animal economy, though, perhaps, we may not be able to perceive or ascertain their nature by our imperfect senses : I only alledge, that the effects operated on the Auids by one dose, or by one over-dose, are inconsiderable, when compared with its effects on the nerves of the circulating system.
• 12. We are to consider, that the nerves of the heart, and Jarge branches of the vascular system, affected by medicines absorbed and conveyed with the blood, will influence, by fympathy, other nerves of the body, to which these medicines may. hot perhaps be able to penetrate through the very small vessels.
• 13. Medicines circulated with the blood, will probably affect iome organs more readily than others, owing to the very different termination of their vesels, and various feeling of their nerves. Hence, we may suppose, there are, in nature, medicines which, with strict propriety, might be termed cephalic, pulmonic, hepatic, Splenic, &c. though hitherto these names have been applied with so little precision, that at present they are justly in disuse with many physicians.
• Nay, in fact, we may observe, that the matter of disease, or acrid medicines, mixed with the blood, more readily and frequently affect the skin, trachea, and kidneys, by means of
which chiefly such particles are secreted from the blood, and excreted, as by the functions of life have been rendered irritaring and burtful to the constitucion, than the other glands or parts of the body."
We are sorry to observe, that whole. he atombs of poor harmless frogs, have been painfully sacrificeds in the courie of thele experiments.
(To be concluded in our next.) Art. IV. A Vindication of the Protestant Disenting Ministers, with
regard to their late Application 10 Parliament By Andrew Kippis, D. D. 8vo. I s. 6 d. Robinson. 1772. I
F the cause of religious liberty and toleration, the unalien
able rights of conscience and privare judgment, are subjects that claim the serious attention of every confiftent Proteftant, of every one who is acquainted with the genius and spirit of the gospel, the late application to parliament, by the protestant diffenting ministers, for the purpose of obtaining a legal toleration, is, surely, entitled to the very attentive consideration of every sincere friend to liberty. It must be matter of astonishment to every person of a truly liberal and catholic way of thinking, that so reasonable a request as that for an enlargement of the Toleration AA, Mould, in a protestant country, and so enlightened an age, be rejected. That so many of the temporal lords should appear against the Bill, is matter of furprise; but that not a single bishop should be found in the church of England, to plead the cause of toleration, the pride and boast of cultivated humanity, is indeed amazing! We admire the genius of some of our bishops, we respect the learning, the abilities, and the virtues of others; but we cannot help think. ing, that their conduct, in regard to the diffenting minifters, was repugnant to every maxim of SOUND policy, as well as to the genuine spirit of Christianity.
In the performance before us, Dr. Kippis, who was one of the committee appointed for conducting the late application to parliament, defends the principles, and vindicates the conduct, of his brethren, with a decent and manly freedom, and with great candor, folidity, and judgment. He is an advocate for an equal and extensive toleration, and he writes in support of fo noble a cause with the spirit of a gentleman and a protestant divine.
He sets out with some short, but pertinent reflections concerning the right, expediency, and utility of requiring an affent or subscription to articles of religion, and creeds, composed by fallible men ; likewise on the petitioning clergy, and the principal reasons that prevented their success; after which be proceeds in the following manner :
Should it be aled, why these things. are mentioned, or what connection they have with the abjeet before us; I answer, that it appears to me to be of importance.co mention them, because it is hence evident, that the nocives for rejecting the petition of the clergy are not applicable to the situation of the Proteitant Diffenting Ministers.
• Without pretending to approve of the arguments which were so fatal to the petitioners, without withing ill to their cause, many of us could not but be rejoiced to find that these arguments did not discouragt an application to parliament in our particular case. We were: naturally led, both by our sentiments and situation, to pay a verso diligent attention to the controversy between the diffatisfied clergy and the advocates for subscription, and to observe the progrefs and fate of the petition offered to the legislature; and we faw with pleasure, that the reasons alledged for the continuance of subscription were applicable only to those who are members, and receive the emoluments of a national established church. We saw, with pleasure, that none of these reasons militated against the liberty which may be clained, and ought to be granted, under a toleration. We saw, with pleasure, that Mr. Toplady, one of the warmelt defenders of the Thirty nine Articles, had afferted, that the fubfcription required of the Disenters' is a real grievance, equally oppressive and abfurd. We faw, with fill greater pleasure, that Dr. Tucker, the ableit apologist for the church of England, had declared—“ Let the minilters of Dirienting congregations, if they will choose to apply, be heartily wished a good deliverance from the burden of our fubicriprions." But what gave us peculiar fatisfaction was, that our cale was not involved in the arguments urged against the petitioners in the Houie of Commons, and that it was even spoken of in a manner, which might afford a rational prospect of obtaining redrets. By all these circumitances we were encouraged to hope, that we fould' fucceed in an ap; lication to be relieved from the subscription required by the Ad of Toleration : nay, such an application was highly expedient, because the peculiarity of our situation became every day more and more notorious. It was declared in seve. sal publications, it was declared in the House of Commons, that the greater part of the Diffenting. Ministers had not subscribed. It was known too, tha: a large number of us could not possibly subfcribe, and that we stood exposed to very severe penalties for our refusal. When, therefore, our danger was evidently increased, and there appeared, at the fame time, a disposition to relieve us, we should have been shamefully deficient in the duty we owe to ourfelves, to our pofterity, and to the divine cause of religious liberty, if we had not endeavoured to obtain a legal toleration,
• But though the circumstances I have mentioned encouraged an application to parliament at this time, and we might otherwise have been contented some years longer with a fate of connivance, let it not be imagined that we were insensible of the infelicity of our condition, or that we did not desire an) aiin at procuring a deliverance from it. We were painfully conscious of our disgraceful situation : we lamented, that, as ministers of the gospel, we were not under the protection of law, and could scarcely be considered as members of