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in the great business of improvement; for from thence results the increase of food, population, and riches. Those which are the property of the crown might be totally improved at the expence, and upon the account of, his Majesty, who would gain immensely by the improvement. And as to those vastly numerous and extensive ones, which are private property, as it is evident from their being watte, that private intereit is not strong enough, public money should be applied to induce all proprietors to act with that vigour which the public good requires.

The royal forests, and other wastes, should be immediately in closed in such divisions, that those parts which are covered with grown timber may be preserved to that use, and others, in which young trees are growing, divided off for the fame purpose ; the open parts would then remain, which should be struck into inclosed farms, and let to the best advantage. If the soil was of a very poor kind, it thould be manured with marle, chalk, clay, or earth dug from under the surface; and if the land was any where so wet as to require draining, si ch operation likewise is to be performed. The returns of rent for a foil heretofore walte, would nobly repay all expences of inclosing, draining, manuring, building, &c.

• In respect to private property, a bounty should be given to encourage individuals, upon small scales; and honours, titles, ribbons, or medals, in others. In tracts of dry sandy soils, which feed nothing but rabbits, the legislature might grant a bounty of five pounds per acre on all that was inclosed; manured at the rate of not less than one hundred loads per acre, houses and barns, &c. built, and in thort converted to farms, and let to tenants. The moment a farm was thus compleated, the bounty should be payable.

• A proper bounty thould likewise be allowed on all bogs and sens, or other unprofitable tracts which are converted into farms, and let. Exemptions from taxes, which is a capital encouragement in France, would not be fo proper in this country as bounties.

• In the north and western parts of Scotland, in many in Ireland, and in some in England, there are very extensive tracts of uncultivated land, amounting almost to whole counties, which are so very thinly peopled, that they would require colonies to be planted on them as much as any waste in America: and for such a purpose, foreigners Mhould be invited to settle with us, and brought from their country at the government's expence; and the individuals, to whom such waste lands belong, should either contribute considerably to the settlement of them in farms, or else fell a suficient quantity of land for that purpose to the government, that proper iracts might be granted to the settlers, under such reservations and conditions as Thould be found most convenient.

* But the period peculiarly adapted to such undertakings is the conclusion of a war.

Vast numbers of men and families are then discharged the service, who have a profession and employment to feek, and for want of having a proper one provided, for the most part, apply to none, and of course remain a worse burthen to the fociety than when paid by it: if any prove more induftrious, they are very apt to leave their country for foreign ones, where they meet

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with that reception denied them at home. The ill consequences of
either alternative must be apparent to all ; for no foreigners we can
procure at a much greater expence, would be of such national fer-
vice as these military men, who probably are used to a variety of
hardships inuring to labour.. I cannot avoid remarking, the fad
omillion of acting upon this plan at the conclusion of the last peace :
upon a moderate computation, one hundred thousand men were
then dismified, to seek new methods of livelihood ; some encourage-
ments were given to those fettiing in America, who were discharged
there : but such a plan of policy was by no means beneficial to Bri-
tain, of which circumstance more in another place.

That fyftem of economy, which excludes the expences of such
really national objects as these, is not a whit less prejudicial than
a fyllem of extravagance; critical featons for noble undertakings
are lost, which cannot be recovered, of which the instance, we are
speaking of is a notable one. After the vait grants which had pait
the parliament for conduring a war; after the immense fums
which had been sent out of the kingdom;

five miilions a year to Germany ;-and on the conclusion of a treaty, not five-pence to cultivate the arts of peace! Unhappy delusion! Wretched @conomy!- The opportunity was loft ;-- pray Heaven, it be long before another offers !

* Foreign Protestants might be gained in considerable numbers, and planted upon the tracts of uncultivated country above-mentioned, until the whole are fully peopled; an object of infinite importance. The ideas of those who might command such works are, however, different ; for when the P::latines were in Engiand, instead of keeping them there, the first thought was that of hurrying them to America. Avoiding the expence of forming such colonies, is the more surprizing, as all the money is expended at home, and in the most beneficial manner to agriculture, and industry, of all others. When such tracts of land as I have described were converted into farms, the very returns of rent alone would be of infnite consequence, and fuflicient to repay the whole cost, but yet those returns would not be the most conliderable that would ensue; the new settlers would give a vait addition to the general consumption, not only in what immediately concerned themselves, but in the whole syitem of employment they created. This would be attended with an increase of circulation; both would be prodigious while the improvement was executing, and of very confiderable extent afterwards, for the products of the indultry of such a number of hands, with the consumption of necessaries and employment of artizans they would be exchanged for, with the additional commerce occasioned by the whole, would altogether form an addition to the industry, riches, and revenue of the kingdom, of the utmost importance.

[To be concluded in another Article.]

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ART.

IN

ART. II. Five Dissertations. I. On the Athanafian Do&rine. II. Or

Ibe Socinian Scheme. III. On the Perfon of Christ. IV. On the
Rise, Progress, Perfe&tion, and End of Cbriff's Kingdom. V. Or
the Causes which probably conspired to produce our Saviour's agony.
By Edward Harwood, D. D. 8vo. 45. Becket. 1772.
N his first dissertation, Dr. Harwood observes, that " the

great end and aim of Christianity is, not to revolt the understanding, but to enlighten it;- not to overwhelm and extinguish reason, but to purify and exalt it ;- not to envelope religion in the sacred gloom of mystery, but to dispel all those baleful mifts in which fuperftition had involved it.'- The companions and disciples of our Lord, says he, were not educated in the schools of the Rabbies, or initiated into the subtleties and fophisms of the Greek philosophy. Their language was unadorned and artless—their speech did not consist in the wisdom of words :- it was the plainness of their discourse, which rendered them the objects of the lowest conternpt and ridicule to the Greeks, whose vitiated taste, at that time, could not relish fimplicity in any thing ;- could relish nothing but extravagant flights of fancy, artificial embellishments of rhetoric, and the acute refinements and distinctions of metaphysical fophiftry.”

This Author proceeds to remark how the converts to Chris. tianity, from among the Greeks, began very early to attempt the intermingling some of their subtleties and refinements with the religion of Jesus : and, beside this, he farther observes, that there were many, in a course of years, who were infiated with pride, and began to domineer and tyrannize over the confciences of men, till, in time, the system of popery, that greatest corruption of Chriftian truth, and most atrocious inva. fion of the rights of mankind, was established.

After many reflections of this kind, he introduces a short story from ecclefiaftical history, which we shall lay before our Readers.

• At one of the great general synods, when a numerous convocation of christians were quarrelling upon the subject of the Trinity, an obscure person begged again and again to be heard.—With great difficulty this favour being obtained, he stood up before them--and while the whole fynod expected to hear somewhat ingenious and decisive concerning the Homousios, in a grave and solemn voice he repeated the following passage from St. Paul : The grace of God, that bringeth salvation, hath appeared to all men, teaching us that denying ungodliness and worldly lufts, we should live soberly, righteously and godly in this present world. But what was the consequence,-He was universally hiffed— They returned immediately to their clamours concerning the hypoftatical union, -necesary emanation, &c.--denouncing damnation one upon

another

another for not believing in these curious subtleties, just as they themselves believed.'

Dr. Harwood presents his readers with several other remarks and particulars of this kind, while he gives a brief view of the progrefs and corruption of the Christian church, in order to Thew how that formulary, which is the immediate subject of his dissertation, was introduced : • This temper and taste for metaphysical difputation, he adds, this passion for creeds and creed-making, this wisdom in exalting human prescriptions into divine fundamentals, and this infernal zeal in excommunicating, anathematizing, exiling, and persecuting one another, in consequence of their reception or rejection of certain established fyftems and sentiments, arrived at length at such an enormous heighth of absurdity and wickedness, and superseded so effectually all regard to the authority of scripture in the decision of controversies, till, at last, the Christian world was corrupted to that deplorable degree, as to render it even capable of enjoying, and of receiving into its most folemn fervices, the fol. lowing SYMBOL, as containing a clear and faithful exhibition of the faith of a Christian.'--Here our Author recites at length the Athanasian creed ; and, from among his farther obfervations upon this composition, we shall select the following fhort passage: • A thousand years had flowed from the incarnation of Jesus Christ, before his church arrived at that degree of spiritual corruption and darkness as to admit this creed into its public services. It was a pious fraud and forgery of the dark ages. The learned Voffius in his Treatise on the three Creeds, hath detected and well exposed this base illegitimate offspring. It was fathered upon Athanafius, to give it a sancion and sacredness, and procure it reception among Christians. But Athanafius himself knew nothing of any such ænigma, nor any one who lived four hundred years after him.-It was a glorious acceffion to the church of Rome, a church which ever delighted in spiritual mystery and mummery. In the thirteenth century, when darkness universally covered both priest and people, the legate of pope Gregory the IXth. in a public dispute at Constantinople, appraled to this symbol, and pleaded the authority of Athanasius. Cave's Hift. Lit. 146'

We shall only infert another short passage, and thus difmiss the first differtation. · The Scripture, says this Writer, mentions no such being as the Trinity. The word is unknown to prophets and apostles. Our Lord never prayed to the Trinity, never commanded us to pray to the Trinity. Luther in his Poftil. Major. Dominica says, “ The word Trinity sounds oddly, and is an human invention: it were better to call Almighty God, God, than Trinity.” The expressions of Calvin. in Aimonit. 1. ad Polonos, are equally remarkable for their freedom and plainnels : " I like not this prayer ; O holy, blessed, and glorious Tri. nity! It savours of barbarity: the word Trinity is barbarous, infipid, profane, an human invention, grounded on no tettimony of God's word; the POPISH God, unknown to prophets and apostles *.

nitul

As the first differtation considers and oppołes the Athanafian doctrine, the second is intended to do the same by the Socinian. In very agreeable manner our Author briefly traces its rise and progress; he shews that sentiments of this kind were early embraced among Christians; and particularly notices the evidence which arises from the celebrated dialogue between Trypha the Jew and Justin Martyr, whose candid and charitable manner of treating this point he juftly applauds. After the fourth century, the Socinian scheme seems to have languished, till about two centuries ago it arose from its ashes, under the patronage of Fauftus Socinus, an Italian of great erudition, with great freedom and honesty in his enquiries. Dr. Harwood offers a number of judicious and useful reflections upon this subject, and acknowledges, that, in his view, the scheme of the Socinians appears greatly to derogate from the honour of the Son of God.' . Their fundamental and distinguishing principle is, he observes, That Jefus Christ had no being before his incarnation, no existence before he was born of the Virgin Mary. I think they must give us new feriptures before they can support this opinion. When, says he, I have suffered my ideas freely to expatiate on this subject, I find reason to think, that men possessed of erudition and a philosophical genius, do wrong in indulging a disposition to theorize and ipeculate upon it. I wish learned and ingenious men would consider, that Christianity was never designed to teach men philosophy, and to reveal to the world the arcana of nature. The sacred writers never study, never frame any hypothesis to account for the mode and mannner of our Lord's transmission into human nature. They relate it is a FACT. They weave no fubtile refinements and curious theories on this subject. It was not their province. They declare only that the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us; buc the manner in which this was éffected, it was no part of their design to teach men. Had they hazarded a thecry, it might have afforded food to metaphyficians and speculatiits, but would have contributed nothing to the cause of practical religion and personal holiness.-Men may easily frame what they may call rational hypotheses, and then accommodate revelation to the fupport of them. But the New Tefa tament was never designed to form subjects for philosophical disquisition and refinement. By this fpirit it was corrupted and debased in the earliest ages. The natural obvious meanins, that sente which a man of plain understanding would affix

Here Dr. H. refers to Monthly Rev, for October, 1754. p. 257.

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