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in the great bufinefs of improvement; for from thence refults the increase of food, population, and riches. Thofe which are the property of the crown might be totally improved at the expence, and upon the account of, his Majefty, who would gain immenfely by the improvement. And as to thofe vaftly numerous and extenfive ones, which are private property, as it is evident from their being wafte, that private intereft is not ftrong enough, public money fhould be applied to induce all proprietors to act with that vigour which the public good requires.

The royal forefts, and other waftes, fhould be immediately inclofed in fuch divifions, that thofe parts which are covered with grown timber may be preferved to that ufe, and others, in which young trees are growing, divided off for the fame purpose; the open parts would then remain, which fhould be ftruck into inclofed farms, and let to the best advantage. If the foil was of a very poor kind, it fhould be manured with marle, chalk, clay, or earth dug from under the furface; and if the land was any where fo wet as to require draining, fich operation likewife is to be performed. The returns of rent for a foil heretofore walte, would nobly repay all expences of inclofing, draining, manuring, building, &c.

In respect to private property, a bounty fhould be given to encourage individuals, upon fmall fcales; and honours, titles, ribbons, or medals, in others. In tracts of dry fandy foils, which feed nothing but rabbits, the legiflature might grant a bounty of five pounds per acre on all that was inclosed; manured at the rate of not lefs than one hundred loads per acre, houfes and barns, &c. built, and in fhort converted to farms, and let to tenants. The moment a farm was thus compleated, the bounty should be payable.

A proper bounty fhould likewife be allowed on all bogs and fens, or other unprofitable tracts which are converted into farms, and let. Exemptions from taxes, which is a capital encouragement in France, would not be fo proper in this country as bounties.

In the north and western parts of Scotland, in many in Ireland, and in fome in England, there are very extensive tracts of uncultivated land, amounting almoft to whole counties, which are fo very thinly peopled, that they would require colonies to be planted on them as much as any wafle in America: and for fuch a purpose, foreigners fhould be invited to fettle with us, and brought from their country at the government's expence; and the individuals, to whom fuch wafte lands belong, fhould either contribute confiderably to the fettlement of them in farms, or elfe fell a fufficient quantity of land for that purpose to the government, that proper tracts might be granted to the fettlers, under fuch refervations and conditions as fhould be found most convenient.

But the period peculiarly adapted to fuch undertakings is the conclufion of a war. Vaft numbers of men and families are then difcharged the fervice, who have a profeflion and employment to feek, and for want of having a proper one provided, for the most part, apply to none, and of courfe remain a worfe burthen to the fociety than when paid by it: if any prove more induftrious, they are very apt to leave their country for foreign ones, where they meet

with that reception denied them at home. The ill confequences of either alternative must be apparent to all; for no foreigners we can procure at a much greater expence, would be of fuch national fervice as thefe military men, who probably are used to a variety of hardships inuring to labour.. I cannot avoid remarking, the fad omiflion of acting upon this plan at the conclufion of the last peace: upon a moderate computation, one hundred thousand men were then difmiffed, to feek new methods of livelihood; fome encouragements were given to those fettling in America, who were discharged there but fuch a plan of policy was by no means beneficial to Britain, of which circumftance more in another place.

That lyftem of economy, which excludes the expences of fuch really national objects as thefe, is not a whit less prejudicial than a fyllem of extravagance; critical feafons for noble undertakings are loft, which cannot be recovered, of which the inftance we are fpeaking of is a notable one. After the vast grants which had palt the parliament for conducting a war; after the immenfe fums which had been fent out of the kingdom;- -five millions a year to Germany; and on the conclufion of a treaty, not five-pence to cultivate the arts of peace! Unhappy delution Wretched conomy!-The opportunity was loft;-pray Heaven, it be long before another offers!

'Foreign Proteftants might be gained in confiderable numbers, and planted upon the tracts of uncultivated country above-mentioned, until the whole are fully peopled; an object of infinite importance. The ideas of those who might command fuch works are, however, different; for when the Palatines were in England, infead of keeping them there, the first thought was that of hurrying them to America, Avoiding the expence of forming fuch colonies, is the more furprizing, as all the money is expended at home, and in the most beneficial manner to agriculture, and industry, of all others. When fuch tracts of land as I have described were converted into farms, the very returns of rent alone would be of infinite confequence, and fufficient to repay the whole coft, but yet thofe returns would not be the most confiderable that would enfue; the new fettlers would give a vait addition to the general confumption, not only in what immediately concerned themfelves, but in the whole fyftem of employment they created. This would be attended with an increase of circulation; both would be prodigious while the improvement was executing, and of very confiderable extent afterwards, for the products of the industry of fuch a number of hands, with the confumption of neceffaries and employment of artizans they would be exchanged for, with the additional commerce occafioned by the whole, would altogether form an addition to the induftry, riches, and revenue of the kingdom, of the utmost importance.'

[To be concluded in another Article.]


ART. II. Five Differtations. I. On the Athanafian Doctrine. II. On the Socinian Scheme. III. On the Perfon of Chrift. IV. On the Rife, Progrefs, Perfection, and End of Chrift's Kingdom. V. Ox the Caufes which probably conspired to produce our Saviour's Agony. By Edward Harwood, D. D. 8vo. 4 s. Becket. 1772.


N his firft differtation, Dr. Harwood obferves, that the great end and aim of Christianity is, not to revolt the understanding, but to enlighten it;-not to overwhelm and extinguish reafon, but to purify and exalt it ;-not to envelope religion in the facred gloom of mystery, but to dispel all those baleful mifts in which fuperftition had involved it. The com panions and difciples of our Lord, fays he, were not educated in the schools of the Rabbies, or initiated into the subtleties and fophifms of the Greek philofophy. Their language was unadorned and artlefs-their fpeech did not confift in the wisdom of words :-it was the plainness of their difcourfe, which rendered them the objects of the loweft contempt and ridicule to the Greeks, whofe vitiated tafte, at that time, could not relish fimplicity in any thing;-could relish nothing but extravagant fights of fancy, artificial embellishments of rhetoric, and the acute refinements and diftinctions of metaphyfical fophiftry."

This Author proceeds to remark how the converts to Chriftianity, from among the Greeks, began very early to attempt the intermingling fome of their fubtleties and refinements with the religion of Jefus: and, befide this, he farther obferves, that there were many, in a course of years, who were inflated with pride, and began to domineer and tyrannize over the confciences of men, till, in time, the fyftem of popery, that greateft corruption of Chriftian truth, and most atrocious invafion of the rights of mankind, was eftablifhed.

After many reflections of this kind, he introduces a fhort ftory from ecclefiaftical hiftory, which we fhall lay before our Readers.

At one of the great general fynods, when a numerous convocation of chriftians were quarrelling upon the subject of the Trinity, an obfcure perfon begged again and again to be heard.-With great difficulty this favour being obtained, he stood up before them and while the whole fynod expected to hear somewhat ingenious and decifive concerning the Homoufios, in a grave and folemn voice he repeated the following paffage from St. Paul: The grace of God, that bringeth falvation, hath appeared to all men, teaching us that denying ungodliness and worldly lufts, we should live foberly, righteously and godly in this prefent world.-But what was the confequence,-He was univerfally hiffed-They returned immediately to their clamours concerning the hypoftatical union, -neceffary emanation, &c.-denouncing damnation one upon


another for not believing in these curious fubtleties, just as they themselves believed.'

Dr. Harwood presents his readers with feveral other remarks and particulars of this kind, while he gives a brief view of the progrefs and corruption of the Chriftian church, in order to thew how that formulary, which is the immediate subject of his differtation, was introduced: This temper and taste for metaphyfical difputation, he adds, this paffion for creeds and creed-making, this wisdom in exalting human prescriptions into divine fundamentals, and this infernal zeal in excommunicating, anathematizing, exiling, and perfecuting one another, in confequence of their reception or rejection of certain eftablifhed fyftems and fentiments, arrived at length at fuch an enormous heighth of abfurdity and wickednefs, and fuperfeded fo effectually all regard to the authority of fcripture in the decifion of controverfies, till, at laft, the Chriftian world was corrupted to that deplorable degree, as to render it even capable of enjoying, and of receiving into its moft folemn fervices, the following SYMBOL, as containing a clear and faithful exhibition of the faith of a Chriftian.'-Here our Author recites at length the Athanafian creed; and, from among his farther obfervations upon this compofition, we fhall felect the following fhort paffage: A thousand years had flowed from the incarna tion of Jefus Chrift, before his church arrived at that degree of fpiritual corruption and darkness as to admit this creed into its public fervices. It was a pious fraud and forgery of the dark ages. The learned Voffius in his Treatife on the three Creeds, hath detected and well expofed this bafe illegitimate offspring. It was fathered upon Athanafius, to give it a fanction and facrednefs, and procure it reception among Chriftians. But Athanafius himself knew nothing of any fuch ænigma, nor any one who lived four hundred years after him.-It was a glorious acceffion to the church of Rome, a church which ever delighted in fpiritual mystery and mummery. In the thirteenth century, when darkness univerfally covered both priest and people, the legate of pope Gregory the IXth. in a public difpute at Conftantinople, appealed to this fymbol, and pleaded the authority of Athanafius. Cave's Hift. Lit. 146'

We fhall only infert another fhort paffage, and thus difmifs the first differtation. The Scripture, fays this Writer, mentions no fuch being as the Trinity. The word is unknown to prophets and apoftles. Our Lord never prayed to the Trinity, never commanded us to pray to the Trinity. Luther in his Poftil. Major. Dominic. fays, "The word Trinity founds oddly, and is an human invention: it were better to call Almighty God, God, than Trinity." The expreffions of Calvin. in Admonit. 1. ad Polonos, are equally remarkable for their freedom and plainness : "I like not this prayer; O holy, bleffed, and glorious Tri

nity !

nity! It favours of barbarity: the word Trinity is barbarous, infipid, profane, an human invention, grounded on no teftimony of God's word; the POPISH God, unknown to prophets and apoftles *.

As the first differtation confiders and oppofes the Athanafian doctrine, the fecond is intended to do the fame by the Socinian. In a very agreeable manner our Author briefly traces its rife and progrefs; he fhews that fentiments of this kind were carly embraced among Chriftians; and particularly notices the evidence which arifes from the celebrated dialogue between Trypho the Jew and Justin Martyr, whofe candid and charitable manner of treating this point he juftly applauds. After the fourth century, the Socinian fcheme feems to have languifhed, till about two centuries ago it arose from its afhes, under the patronage of Fauftus Socinus, an Italian of great erudition, with great freedom and honesty in his enquiries. Dr. Harwood offers a number of judicious and ufcful reflections upon this fubject, and acknowledges, that, in his view, the scheme of the Socinians appears greatly to derogate from the honour of the Son of God.' Their fundamental and diftinguishing principle is, he obferves, That Jefus Chrift had no being before his incarnation, no existence before he was born of the Virgin Mary. I think they must give us new feriptures before they can fupport this opinion.-When, fays he, I have fuffered my ideas freely to expatiate on this fubject, I find reason to think, that men poffeffed of erudition and a philosophical genius, do wrong in indulging a difpofition to theorize and ipeculate upon it. I wish learned and ingenious men would confider, that Chriftianity was never defigned to teach men philofophy, and to reveal to the world the arcana of nature. The facred writers never ftudy, never frame any hypothesis to account for the mode and mannner of our Lord's tranfmiffion into human nature. They relate it is a FACT. They weave no fubtile refinements and curious theories on this fubject. It was not their province. They declare only that the IVord was made flesh, and dwelt among us; but the manner in which this was effected, it was no part of their defign to teach men. Had they hazarded a theory, it might have afforded food to metaphyficians and fpeculatifts, but would have contributed nothing to the caule of practical religion and perfonal holinefs.-Men may cafily frame what they may call rational hypothefes, and then accommodate revelation to the fupport of them. But the New Teftament was never defigned to form fubjects for philofophical difquifition and refinement. By this fpirit it was corrupted and debafed in the earlieft ages.-The natural obvious meaning, that fenfe which a man of plain understanding would affix


Here Dr. H. refers to Monthly Rev. for October, 1754. P. 257


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