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have recourse to the spelling-book, Young gentlemen and ladies, however, paffed such rudiments, would be very little edified by such definitions as the following : “ Which are regular Verbs." Those that in the palt time of the indicative, and in the suffering form of the participial mode, end both in ed.' The end of grammar is per. spicuity ; but this is perfectly cabalistical. Art. 25. Some historical Account of Guinea ; with an Enquiry into

the Rise and Progress of the Slave-Trade, its Nature, and lamentable Effects. Allo a Republication of the Sentiments of several Authors of Note on this interesting Subject, By Antony Benezet, 8vo. 2 s. 6 d. sewed. Owen. 1772.

Wholly collected, and not injudiciously, from a considerable vasiety of authors; and intended to fhew both the iniquity of the flavetrade, and of our enslaving the negroes, &c, in our colonies. It was. first printed at Philadelphia, in 1771. Art. 26. Trifles. By Vortigern Crancoce, Esq; A. B. C. D.

and E. F. G. H. I. and K. L. M. N. and 0. P. Q. R. S. and T. V. U. W. X. Y. 2.

2 s. sewed. Bladon. 1772. An odd medley of indifferent poetry, and inelegant prose; of dulness and humour; of sense and absurdity. It is, for the moit part, both frivolous and tedious; and not innocent enough to give that propriety to the harmless-founding title which was seen in modeft Doddley's inoffensive book *, from whence it may have been borrowed. Art. 27. An Introduction to the map useful European Languages

consisting of select Passages from the most celebrated English, French, Italian, and Spanish Authors. With Translations as close as polible ; fo disposed, in columns, as to give in one View the Manner of expresing the fame Sentence in each Language. By Joseph Baretti. 8vo. 6 s. Davies, &c. 1772.

The nature and design of this publication are sufficiently clear to our Readers from the above specification : and the utility of such a scheme, to all persons who with to be acquainted with these languages, is also very apparent. In his mort preface Mr. Baretti tells as, that he bas taken fome pains to render this work useful, and is pretty confident that teachers, as well as learners, will find it convenient. ' Exactness in rendering the meaning, says he, is what I have chiefly endeavoured after in the following versions : but let it be remembered (he adds) that this sort of exačtness often precludes clegance, and forces sometimes a translator into petty improprieties of diction.'' This last is a very just observation, and a reader of any tolerable judgment will readily make every proper allowance for the circumstance.

In that part of this work where the English is only a translation, we observe some instances in which it is at least doubtful whether the Author has employed the most easy or suitable expressions, or given the full sense of the original: but, on the whole, the performance is well adapted to facilitate an acquaintance with these different languages; and the learner will no doubt find a considerable benefit Dodsley's Irises, published about thirty years ago, in one vo


lumę svog

from having each of them thus placed before him at one view, that he may minutely examine and compare them." Art. 28. Calculations deduced from firft Principles, in the most fa

miliar Manner, by plain Arithmetic; for the Use of the Societies instituted for the Benefit of old Age ; intended as an Introduction to the Study of the Doctrine of Annuities. By a Member of one of the Societies. Svo. 6 s. Boards. Ridley. 1772. This publication is well adapted to answer the purpofes for which it is intended, viz. ' To inform the inattentive, to undeceive the credulods, to caution the unwary, and to detect, expofe, and fapprefs fome newly-established scandalous impositions on the public.' There is hardly a member of any of the benefit focieties, who will not be able to judge for himself, by the assistance of these calculadons, as to the infufficiency and injustice of the plans on which they were first established. The Author has taken immense pains to render this work universally intelligible; and it may be considered as a very important and ufeful performance. Some may think, that he has erred in the extreme of unnecessary minuteness and prolixidy ; bde all will allow, that this is very excufable in a writer, who withed to be generally understood, and who addresses himself, not to adepts on this subject, but to those who had very little acquaintance with ír. Yuch are most of the members, perhaps we might add, fome of the managers of the Annuitant Societies. To their perusal we recommend this work, not doubting, that it will produce conviction. ; We could with this ingenious Author to reconsider some of his marks in the Addenda. Art. 29. An Essay towards an Investigation of the Origin and Ele

ments of Language and Letters, that is, Sounds and Symbols : Wherein is contidered their analogy, and power to express the radical Ideas on which the primitive Language appears to have been formed. By L. D. Nelme, 4to. 6 s. Boards.'' Leacroft. 1772.

We have no great inclination to decide the controversy between Mr. Jones, of whose publications we have taken notice in fome former numbers, and the Author of this article. Mr. ). claims precedence, to which we have no manner of objection; and in retorn for our civility, we hope, he will entertain a more favourable opinion of us; and no longer advertise us to the public, as "sceptics and infidels," because we have no faith' in his • bieroglyfic and'argra. fie fyftem. It must be acknowledged, that both thele authors pof. sers 'very extraordinary talents for ctyoclogical discoveries. They enter into the structure of every word and letter with moft aitonithing minuteness, and find out myiteries in language, which were never thought of in its original formation. An abtract of Mr. Nelme's plan would take up more room than we can allow to this article, and yet afford no great entertainment to our Readers.

According to this Author, the two essential fornis, whence the elements of all letters are derived, are the line , and the circle O. These two characters combined express the idea of all in a variety of languages; and therefore all men in all ages, ever had, and cannot but have, precisely the same ideas of them. These forins, with


their derivatives, make up the thirteen radical fymbols, which are to be the foundation of an univerfal character and language. Our Readers will observe, that this essay is only an introduction to a more extensive work. Art. 30. Calendars of the ancient Charters, &c. and of the Welch

and Scottish Bolls, now remaining in the Tower of London : Also, Calendars of all the Treaties of Peace, &c. entered into by the Kings of England with those of Scotland ; and of sundry Letters and public instruments relating to that Kingdom, now in the Chapter House at Wettminfter. Together with Catalogues of the Records brought to Berwick from the Royal Treasury at Edinburgh ; of such as were transmitted to the Exchequer at Weltminfter, and of those which were removed to different Parts of Scoto land by Order of King Edward I. The Proceedings relating to che carrying back the Records of Scotland into that Kingdom ; and the Transactions of the Parliament there from the isth of May 1639 to the 8th of March 1650. To which are added, Memoranda concerning the Affairs of Ireland, extracted from the Tower Records. To the whole is prefixed an Introduction, giving fome Account of the State of the public Records from the Conquest to the present Time. 4to. il, 1 s. W. and J. Rich. ardson, Printers, Fleetstreet. 1772.

This very full and distinct title, supersedes the necessity of our mentioning the contents of the present work. Concerning its merie it is sufficient to remark, that it may be useful to future antiquaries and historians. The Introduction to it appears to be exceedingly accurate, and is drawn up by a person, particularly conversant is the history of Great Britain.

RELIGIOUS and CONTROVERSIAL. Art. 31. The Case of the Diffenting Ministers. Addressed to the

Lords Spiritual and 'Temporal. By Ifrael Mauduit. To which is added, a Copy of the Bill proposed for their Relief. 8vo. 1 s. Wilkie. 1772

When the dissenting ministers lately applied to parliament, in order to obtain relief in the matter of subscription, Mr. Mauduit, who distinguished himself by his zeal and activity in promoting their cause, drew up the pamphlet before us, which, at first, was privately distributed to several members of the legislature, and to other persons. It hath fince been published, and contains a judicious and spirited defence of the application ; the various objections to which are refuted with great strength of reason and language. At the conclufion of the third edition, Mr. Mauduit hath added a complete vindication of the dissenting clergy from the charge of deism, which had been wantonly' and groundlessly thrown out again't them. Part of what he hath said upon this subject we shall lay before our Readers.

• But what are the Dissenters ? and what have been their doings, that they Mould so often hear themselves treated as deists, or as en: thufiafts? Their predeceffors of the last century all subscribed the articles, and are therefore beyond exception. And as to those of the present, let the writings of the late Lord Barrington and of Sir Richard

Ellis, let the commentaries of a Pierce, a Benson, a Doddridge, a Lowman, and a Taylor, upon the different parts of the New Teltament; let the numerous sermons printed by others; let the learned labours of a Jones or a Lardner, the manly devotions of a Grove or a Watts, the comprehensive views of a Priestley, the judicious writings of a Farmer or a Bourn, the Works of an Amory, a Price or a Furneaux, with other members even of the present committee ; let thefe all teftify, whether the diffenters are not capable of speaking the words of truth and foberness as well as other men.

And upon what ground are they to be charged with deism? The pomber of dissenting minifters may not perhaps amount to more than a tepth parc of the clergy of the church of England. Nor have we at our private academies the advantage of such libraries as are to be found at the two public universities : yet, as often as our common faith has been attacked, the dissenters have taken their full share in the defence of it. When Mr. Collins attempted to undermine the grounds and reasons of our faith, the various anfwers written by disfenters did not discover any want of zeal for our holy religion. And when Chand?er the Bishop wrote his letter of thanks to Chandler the Presbyter, for, his learned defence of it, he furely would not have wished that his fellow-labourer in the common cadfe, Mould have all his life-tiine remained subject to imprisonment for preaching a sermon, and enforcing the duties of that gospel, the truth of which he had so ably maintained.,

• After this, when our religion was attacked by Mr. Tyndal, in his Christianity as old as the Creation, the diflenters were again as ready to appear in its vindication. We willingly acknowledge the merit of all : but may we not, without being chargeable with prefumption, ask, whose answers were more read, or better approved, than those of Mr. Simon Brown and of Dr. Fofler When Mr. Pope said of this latter,

Let humble Foster, if he will, excel

Ten metropolitans, in preaching well, we know how to ascribe one half of this to his hatred of English bilhops, and to give a great part of the rest to the warmth of his new-made friendihip. But hall Protestant divines with the continuance of a law, by which this great defender of Christianity was liable at any time to be sent to jail, whom papilts themselves have treated thus respectfully!

• 'I mention not the impudent attack of Woolfton, nor the more subtle one made by the author of Christianity not founded in Argument : in answering which, Benson and Lardner again distinguished them, felves. But let it not be told in the foreign languages, into which the works of Dr. Lardner have been translated, that the learned author of the Credibility of the Gospel History, was, by the laws of England, held all his life-time subject to fines and imprisonment ; and that, though the late archbishop, in the most friendly correfpondence, frequently acknowledged his merits, yet his successors all. with to maintain the force of a law, by which he might at any time have been sent to Newgate.

When the works of Lord Boling broke, that great apoftate from all the principles of his education as a Diflenter, a Proteftant, and

a Christian,

2 Christian, were published after his death; what divine is there in this kingdom who will not stand forth and say, that the works of Dr. Leland would not have done him honour ? But Leland, thougla a Protestant Dissenter, was happily removed out of the reach of penal laws, to which others are subjected. So too was Duchal, in the lacter part of his life, and fo was Abernethy ; whole sermons having been preached in Ireland, gained him honour and general esteem only, without the danger of imprisonment.

• Under an accusation of so reproachful a nature as that of Deism, the Diflenters hope, that they may appeal to their writings, without incurring the charge of vanity or prefumption. They with not to compare themselves with the numbers of great men in the establishment: but what is there to be found in the works of their departed friends, or what was there in their conduct, which could afford any the least ground to bring their Christianity into question? Some of these spent long laborious lives in the defence of our hoły religion The relt were employed in preaching the duties of it to their leveral hearers, and all these, we trust, lived and died in the faith of Christ, though they would never subscribe their assent to any thing but his gospel.'

From this specimen, it will be seen how ably Mr. Mauduit hath supported the cause which he has undertaken to defend ; nor could less be expected from a writer whose talents have been so well approved on former occasions. Art. 32. A Letter to the Protestant Diffenring Minifters, who

lately solicited Parliament for further Relief. 8vo. Flexney. 1772.

This performance is of so mixed a nature, that it is difficult to give an exact and proper description of its character. It is written in a manner remarkably soft and specious, and contains great professions of respect for the persons to whom it is addressed; but, at the same time, a considerable degree of severity, is couched under this apparent gentleness and moderation. Infinuations are thrown out much to the prejudice of the Diffenting Minilters ; insinuations that they indulge a dangerous latitude of sentiment, that they deny the fundamental doctrines of Christianity, that they have departed from Protestantism, and are influenced by motives of ambition. The design of the letter is to shew that they have acted improperly, in respect to the matter, the manner, and the time of their application. In respect to the matter of the application, the Author infifts upon a variety of circumstances ; but we shall only transcribe fome passages from what he hath advanced concerning the intent of the Act of Toleracion.

• In order, says he, to account for your aking, and one branch of the legislature refusing, a request fo fingularly circumstanced, it may be necessary to conlider, what was meant by Toleration at the time of passing the act ? What the state meant by it then? What was the idea your predecessors entertained of it then ? and what is your idea of it now? This may explain the whole, and justify the face of the bill, by convincing you of the impropriety of your application in point of matter. • Dr. Lardner was writing to near his eightieth year,

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