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here, he fays, four days, and it is fo agreeable a place, that it is with regret I leave it to-morrow; the play-house, especially when the actors are good, which they are here, is to me a great entertainment. There is likewife vaft comfort in meeting agreeable people at the Table d'Hote, which we always make a point to dine at, wherever we are; for the fake of improvement in the French language, and to wear off by variety of company, that mauvaise Honte, which fo ftrongly marks the English.The fite of the city, we are told, resembles Guilford, being built upon the brow of a hill. Its figure is oval, about four miles in circumference; the low town has the benefit of canals, which admit boats of confiderable burthen. It is well supplied with fountains; the streets well paved and fpacious, the houses in general large and modern; the country round it most delightful to the eye, and extremely profitable to the poffeffor; but the churches are both in structure and elegance far inferior to those of Antwerp.'

Lifle, the capital of French Flanders, is spoken of as a place most worthy the attention of a foreigner, whether in refpect to the strength and extent of the fortifications, or to the beauty and regularity of the buildings. When he arrived at Senlis, we are told; The King was hunting in the neighbourhood, and was to return through the town, to Verfailles in the evening. So careful were the inhabitants of their Grand Monarque, that all the figns were removed, leaft peradventure they might fall on his royal pate."

Our Author now reaches Paris, concerning the fize of which, after having walked round it, and viewed it from the top of Notre Dame, he fays, he cannot be induced to think, that it is more than half as large as London and Westminster, including the fuburbs: the streets, he obferves are contemptibly narrow, few equal to Drury-lane, the generality inferior to the narrow part of the Strand: the houfes are fix or seven ftories high, and many of them inhabited by as many different families, which will account for the populoufnefs of this metropolis.'

He proceeds to give an account of the churches, palaces, paintings, ftatues, gardens, &c. in this city, which afford him great opportunities for amufing his readers. We shall take notice of the church of the Carmelites, efteemed the most curious in Paris. It is a little gaudy chapel, fays our Author, decorated with a profufion of gilding, and pillars painted in imitation of marble.-The fides are almoft totally covered with pictures of the greatest masters; on the roof is a picture of Chrift in perspective, which attracts the attention of the curious. Le Brun's mafter-piece is the picture of the Dutchefs de la Valiere, miftrefs to Louis XIV. who had the virtue, at thirty years of age, to prefer, to the arms of a monarch, this

little convent, where the retired when in the midst of all her glory, and continued in it 'till her death, which happened thirty-fix years after. Neither entreaties nor threats could prevail on her to return to the King, and when he menaced to burn the convent to the ground, the replied, It would be a means of fetting the other nuns at liberty; but that for berfelf, the would perish in the flames.

In the fame ftreet, it is added, is a miferable convent of English Benedictines, confifting of eighteen members. In this chapel lies in ftate that filly fellow James, not yet buried; for his followers, as weak as their master, think that the time will come when his family fhall reign again in Britain, he therefore lies ready to be shipped off for England, to be buried with his ancestors in Westminster Abby.'

The defcription of the city of Paris is followed by that of feveral palaces in the country, we fhall only felect what is related of the last of them, and this principally on account of what is added of the French King, whom the Author faw at this place. It is called Choifi, a neat little hunting box, about fix miles from Paris, fituated on the banks of the Seine. The gardens are agreeable, not magnificent; the apartments convenient, but neither rich nor elegant: there is one dining room, in which no fervants are admitted to attend, the table being fo contrived, as to render their prefence unneceflary; when the first course is over, the King ftamps his foot, the table disappears, and another immediately rifes through the floor, covered with dishes. There are four dumb waiters loaded with wines, on cach of which is a piece of paper and a pencil to write for what is wanted; a fignal is given, the dumb waiter defcends, and again makes its appearance with the article required.-On the road we met the King's attendants, who told us, he was to fhoot there that day; we waited 'till he came, which was about noon, in a coach with four of his nobles. He has a manly countenance, a penetrating eye and fine features, rather corpu lent, and fo helpless, that matter of ftate, in being affifted to get out of his carriage and upon his horfe, was in fact, I be lieve, a matter of neceffity. His dress was a green waistcoat with fleeves, a large gold laced hat, and his own hair tied neg. ligently together; he was attended by about two hundred horfe men, and forty or fifty chaffeurs on foot, with guns in their bands. The moment the King had fired, another gun was put into his hand, which was inft-ntly difcharged. I had the cu riofity to observe his first thirty thots, in which number, he m.ffed only twice. He is proud of being efteemed the best hot in the kingdom; a moft royal accomplifhinent! Nature certainly intended him for a game-keeper, but as a fatire on mankind, let him be a King. Fie conftantly goes to mais at cleven o'clock,


and as conftantly hunts or fhoots from that time, 'till five in the evening; the remainder of the day is spent at table, and in gaming with his nobility, 'till his favourite fultana feduces him to her bed. This is the life of the fovereign of a great people, who has acquired the title of Louis the Well-beloved.'

We shall conclude this article with fome general remarks of this Author's upon the French nation: I believe, fays he, the climate of France to be the most healthy, the foil the moft fruitful, and the face of the country the moft pleasing in the univerfe; and I hope for the honour of human nature, that its inhabitants are the vaineft and moft illiterate. Can you believe that this all-fufficient people, who look on the rest of Europe with contempt, are in most of the mechanic arts at least a century behind the favage English as they affect to term us. In their tapestry, looking-glaffes, and coach-varnish, they are confeffedly our fuperiors, but their carriages are more clumfy than our dung carts; their inns inferior to an English ale-house; their floors, both above and below, of brick, or a kind of plaifter, without carpets; their joifts unceiled, the windows without pullies, and the houfes totally deftitute of every kind of elegance, I had almost faid convenience; I do not mean to in-clude the houses of the opulent great, as money will purchase the elegant fuperfluities of every country. But in this fituation you will find the inns and the houses of the gentry and tradesmen. Their converfation confifts in compliments and obfervations on the weather; no flattery is too grofs for them either to offer or receive: they will talk for ever, but never pay the least attention to what you fay.-Nothing is more common than to fee gentlemen ornamented with ear-rings, while their fhirts are facking, and their heads a dung-hill. In fome inftances they are as neat, as filthy in others. At table you have a clean napkin and clean plates, but your knife is never changed nor wiped. A common bourgeois will not drink out of the fame cup with you, though a nobleman will fpit over your room with the greatest unconcern. I have feen a lady, through excess of delicacy, hide her mouth while fhe ufed a tooth-pick, and to preferve the character entire, the has the next moment scratched her head with the fharp pointed knife fhe was eating with.-In every branch of agriculture the farmers are incredibly deficient ; but can it be wondered at, when you confider, that there are. no inducements for improvement?-I have often seen an half ftarved cow and an afs ploughing in the fame yoke; and I have heard it afferted as a fact, that a pig and an afs are sometimes ploughing together: but I can fcarce believe, that two fuch opinionated animals could be induced to work together with any degree of fociety.In the whole city of Paris there is not a fat stone to walk on, nor a poft to guard you from the carREV. July 1772.



riages. The lamps hang in the centre of the streets on cords which are fixed to the oppofite houfes: if the cord breaks, the lamp is deftroyed as well as the unfortunate person who is paffing under at the time. To light a lamp is two mens business, the one lowers it, while the other lights it, which forms a temporary barrier across the streets, a method as awkward as inconvenient. The whole kingdom (warms with beggars, an evidence of poverty, as well as defect in the laws.-The good qualities of the French are confined in very narrow compass; they are lively, temperate, fober, and good-humoured; but in general are ftrangers to the manly virtues: though I know two or three individuals, who are not only an honour to their country, but an ornament to human nature.'

We fhall only farther observe. that at the end of the volume is an account of foreign coins and their worth in English money; alfo of the manner and expence of travelling from place to place in the countries to which this Writer confines his relation.

N. B. If we are not mistaken, we have seen some advertisements in which this piece is afcribed to Philip Thickneffe, Efq;

ART. X. Obfervations on Dr. Cadogan's Dissertation on the Gout and all Chronic Difeafes. By William Falconer, of Bath, M. D. Edit. 2. with Corrections and Additions. 8vo. Is. 6d. Lowndes. 1772. THIS is a critical, but at the fame time very temperate and candid analyfis of Dr. Cadogan's celebrated differtation; which undoubtedly contains a fufficient fund of matter both for praife and cenfure. The obferver contraverts, with great justice, many of the Doctor's fingular and decifive affertions relative to the gout, and particularly thofe in which he denies that dif temper to be either hereditary or periodical:-pofitions in which Dr. C. certainly contradicts not only the unanimous teftimony of phyficians in all ages, but likewife the general opinion of mankind, founded on matters obvious to every one; without producing either facts or arguments fufficient to counterbalance fuch weighty teftimony.

To give only one inftance of the Doctor's inaccuracy, at leaft, on the firft of thefe articles:-He declares that if the gout were hereditary, it would be neceffarily tranfmitted from father to fon, and no man whofe father had it could poffibly be free from it."-To this Dr. Falconer properly replies that

to say that the gout is not hereditary, because it does not always defcend to pofterity, would be equally abfurd, as to affert, that the fucceffion to the crown of these realms was not hereditary, because its regularity had been fometimes interrupted.' Another of the Doctor's antwerers views this matter in the fame light, drawing his inftance from the cafe of a private fucceffion; which we may further illuftrate by fuppofing that a father leaves


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Falconer's Obfervations on Cadogan's Differtation.

his fon a landed eftate and the gout; the firft in poffeffion, and
the latter in reverfion. By one and the fame kind of conduct
poffibly, he finally lofes poffeffion of the acres, and enters into
full enjoyment of the diftemper: whereas by a different mode
of life, he might have kept and improved the eftate, and might
never have entered upon the very undefirable gouty reverfion;
general experience nevertheless fhewing that he may justly be
confidered as having been heir to it.

After difcuffing thefe and other preliminary points, the ob-
ferver attends the Doctor in the confideration of his three grand
and fole causes of the gout and all other chronic diseases; in-
temperance, indolence, and vexation. Though no advocate
for the first, he cannot agree with the Doctor in his tremen-
dous reprefentation of the bad effects of a little fage and onion,
with the addition of a few grains of falt, or of the common
condiments used with our food; or that they can lay the foun-
dation of the dreadful train of evils he afcribes to them, when
ufed with moderation. He next criticifes the Doctor's ideas
concerning "the acid crudities," supposed to be introduced by
our common diet" into our fluids; producing coagulations,
concretions, and obstructions of various kinds," and laying the
foundation of the gout, rheumatism, ftone, and moft nervous
difeafes: obferving that experiment does not fhew that either
the blood, or any of the fecreted juices, exhibit figns of any
fuch acid acrimony; though fome degree of acetous fermenta
tion fometimes takes place in the ftomach. He defends the
moderate use of wine, likewife, from various confiderations; par-
ticularly as an antifeptic, and confequently a proper and often-
times neceffary corrector of the putrefcent quality of animal
food; but principally from the univerfal practice of mankind,
who have in every part of the world made ufe of fermented li-
quors of one kind or other in their diet. As Dr. Cadogan,
through an inattention to, or his unacquainted nefs with fome of
the modern chemical difcoveries, does not appear to us to have
done justice to his own argument on one part of this subject,
and feems to have extended it too far on the other, we may,
perhaps with fome advantage, offer a kind of trimming fyftem,
equally remote from the extreme rigour of his precepts, and
the relaxation of general practice, and which, from theory at
leaft, seems the most confiftent with health, and is not incom-
patible with enjoyment.

All the world muft agree with Dr. Cadogan, that men, we mean thofe in the upper and idle ranks of life, eat much more,

In Dr. Macbride's alimentary mixtures, the acidity even of a large portion of the juice of lemons is complete deftroyed, by the new combinations that take place in the digestive procefs. See his Experimental Effays, page 39, 2d edit.

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