« AnteriorContinuar »
• The 'unfortunate prince accordingly, accompanied by his fon; entered Delhi on an elephant. This, says a certain writer, was none of the fine elephants of Ceylon and Pegu, which they were wont to ride with golden harness, embroidered covers, and magpi. ficent canopies to defend them from the fun. No. It was an old animal, dirty, and lean, with a tattered cover, a pitiful feat, and the castle open on all sides to the wind : the splendid ornaments of his perfon were now vanished, like his good fortune ; a dirty dress of coarse linen scarce covered his body from the weather; and his wretched turban was wrapped round with a scarf made of Calhmise wool. His face, which formerly commanded respect with the manly regularity of its features, „was now parched and thrivelled by being long exposed to the heat; and a few ftraggling locks, which appeared from his turban, presented a grey colour unsuitable to his years. In this wretched fituation he entered Delhi; and when the mob, who crowded to the gates, knew that it was Dara, they busft into loud complaints, and Thed a flood of tears. The streets were rendered almost impaffable by the number of the spectators; the thops were full of persons of all ages and degrces. The elephant moved flowly; and the progress he made was marked to those who were diftant, by the advanciug murmur among the people. Nothing was heard around but loud complaints againit Fortune, and curses on Aurungzébe. But none had the boldness to offer to rescue the unfortunate prince, though slightly guarded : they were quite une manned by their sorrow.
• After wandering over the features of Dara, the eyes of the people fell on his son: they opposed his innocence, his youth, his graceful person, his hopes, and his quality, to the fate which impended over his head ; and all were diffolved in grief. The infectious forrow flew over the whole city - even the poorest people forfook their work, and retired to secret corners to weep. Dara res tained his dignity apon this trying occasion. He uttered not ope word; but a settled melancholy seemed to dwell on his face. The unfortunate young prince was ready frequently to weep, being softened by the complaints of the people; but his father checked him with a stern look, and he endeavoured to conceal his tears. Dara; having been thus led through the principal streets of Delhi, was conducted to Chizerabâd, a village four miles without the walls. He was locked up, with his son, in a mean apartment, in which he remained for some days in hoorly expectation of his death. Here he amused himself with writing instructions for his fon Solimân; having concealed an ink standish and some paper in one of the folds of his garment. His anxiety to know the intentions of Aurungzébe, sometimes broke in upon his melancholy amusements. He appeared through the window to the guards ; but they knew nothing of what passed at court. He then enquired concerning an old devotee, who had formerly lived in a cell near the foot of the imperial garden at Delhi. One of the soldiers knew the old man ; and the prince gave a billet to be carried to him, requesting some intelligence. " But even he, perhaps," he said, with a figh, “ may have changed with the current of the times."
« On the eleventh of September, about midnight, the unfortunate prince was alarmed with the noise of arms coming through the passage which led to his apartment. He started up, and knew immediately that his death approached. He scarce had awakened his fon, who lay asteep on che carpet at his feet, when the affallins burst open the door. Dara seized a knife, which he had concealed to mend the seed with which he wrote. He stood in a corner of the room. The murderers did not immediately attack him : they ordered his son to remove to the adjoining apartment; but he clung round his father's knees : two of the assassins seized him, to force him away; when Dara, seeing Nazir flanding at the door, begged to be indulged a few moments to take leave of his son. He fell upon his neck, and said, “ My dear fon, this feparation is more alliating than that between foul and body, which I am this moment to suffer. But should he spare you-live. Heaven may preserve you to revenge my death; for his crimes shall not pass unpunished. I leave you to the protection of God. My son, remember me.” A tear half started from his eye, when they were dragging the youth to the adjoining room : he, however, resumed his wonted dignity and courage.
• I beg one other favour, Nazir!” he said, “ much time has not been lost by the latt.” He wrote a billet, and desired that it should be delivered to Aurungzêbe : but he took it back, and *tore it, saying, “ I have not been accustomed to ask favours of my *enemies. He that murders the father can have no compaflion on
the fon" He then raised up his eyes in silence, and the assassins • feemed to have forgot their office.
• During this time of dreadful suspence, the fon, who lay bound in the next room, listened, expecting every moment to hear his father's dying groans. The adiallins, in the mean time, urged on by Nazir, leized Dara by the hands and feet, and throwing him on the ground, prepared to strangle him. Deeming this an infamous death, he, with an effort, disincumbered his hand, and stabbed, 'with his pen-knife, one of the villains to the heart. The others,
cerrified, Hed back; but as he was rising from the foor they fell upon *him with their swords. His son hearing the noise, though his hands were bound, burst open the door, and entered when the murderers - were severing his father's head from his body. Nazir had the humanity to push back the youth into the other apartment, till this horrid operation was performed. The head of Dara was carried to Aurungzebe; and the unfortunate young prince was left, during the remaining part of the night, shut up with his father's body. Next morning he was sent privately, under a guard, to the castle of
Gualiâr.' "The Public is not a little indebted to Mr. Dow, for his valuable History of the once Aourishing empire of Hindoftan. As we understand that the Author is returning to the East. Indies, we hope that his genius, his curiofity, and his improve ing knowledge of the Persic language, will enable him still farther to enrich his native country with the treasures of oriental literature,
Art. I s. 6 d.
Art. X. An easy Method of asaying and clasing Mineral Subftances, &
To which is added, a Series of Experiments on the Fluor Spatosus,
and familiar instructions, by which any person of mode. rate parts, and not much versed in chemical or mineralogical inquiries, may be enabled to class properly, and ascertain the true nature of, all the mineral substances he meets with, either at home, or in excursions abroad ; without having the use of a complete chemical apparatus.
That which is here recommended by the Author to those for whose use principally be drew up these instructions, is at the same time easily portable, and fufficiently adapted to the general purpofes for which it is intended. Beside a hammer, a steel to strike fire with, a loadstone, and a few other necessary implements, he advises bis travelling mineralogist to carry with him a small box, to hold a few vials, the contents of which are to be occasionally used as tests of the different substances he may meet with. These vials should respectively contain the concentrated vie triolic, nitrous, and marine acids, together with an aqua regia, a compound of the two last; a solution of fixed alcali, volaule alcali; the liquor vini probatorius, or an infusion of orpiment and quicklime in distilled water ; some expressed oil, such as that of olives, or rather linseed ; and quicksilver. To this finall collection are to be added some quicklime, kept in a well stopped glass; a piece of infpiffated succus heliotropii, commonly called litmuss, or some linnen rags, or paper, tinged with the scrapings of radishes ; and lastly, some.pure, that is, distilled water.
The Reader will observe that Mr. Forster has not allotted a side of bis pupil's travelling laboratory or box, to the reception of that very useful inftrument, the blow-pipe. He is not inlenfible of the great advantages to be derived from it, in prosecuting enquiries of this kind ; and remarks, on this head, that he might have made his apparatus still more compendious, had he thought it proper to adopt Mr. Engstroem's Pockit Laboratory *, which chiefly depends on the dexterous managemene of the blow-pipe : but this instrument, he observes, requires a great deal of experience and skill, and will certainly be prejudical to the brealts of such gentlemen as have any complaints relative to their lungs. Beside, he adds, the habit of properly managing it cannot be easily acquired in a certain ave; and, if great precautions are not taken, an operator is ape to
* At the end of the English translation of Cronfledt's Mineralogy.
swallow the fumes which arise from the operation, and which are often arsenical, or otherwise noxious.'-All these objections, however, or the greatest part of them, may, we apprehend, be easily and effectually removed by making use of the small Eolia pilet, not long ago particularly described and recommended by us. This instrument takes up very little room, and requires no additional apparatus which may not easily be procured almost every where; nor does the management of it require any partie cular address, or any previous course of practice. - For the particular inftructions here given, we must refer our Readers, who interest themselves in inquiries of this kind, to the pamphlet ; which witl put them in the way of acquiring a general knowledge of the proper methods of proceeding in investigations of this nature. We shall observe only that the Author first teaches his pupil to discover the nature or rank of mineral substances, in general; and afterwards their respective classes, in particular, distinguished by the appellations of 1. Earths or stones ; 2. Saline matters ; -3. Inflammable bodies; and, 4. Metallic substances. These instructions are followed by an abftract from a series of very curious experiments, published last year in the Memoirs of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, by Charles William Scheele ; in which the integrant parts of the Fluor Spatosus, or Sparry Fluor *, are completely discovered. From the account of this elaborate and ina genious analysis we shall select and extract the substance of some of the Author's various processes, and his fingular deduction from one of them, which cannot fail to interest and gratify our philosophical Readers in general, and incite our chemical Readers particularly to consult the original.
The species of sparry Auor on which Mr. Scheele made his experiments were principally, a green sort from Garpenberg, in the province of Dalerne, and which, according to his eighth experiment, owed its colour to some particles of iron contained in it; and a white kind brought from the province of Scania. From his analyfis (Experiment 29] it appears that the sparry fluor is a calcareous earth, saturated with a certain mineral acid, fui generis, or of a peculiar kind, differing from all the other three. He has even produced or regenerated this very spar, by adding some of this diluted acid (previously obtained from another portion of that mineral) to lime water. On this addition a white powder was precipitated from the lime water, having
+ In our account of the Abbé Nollet's Art des Experiences, given in the Appendix to our 42d volume, 1770, page: 537, 538.
See Cronitedt's Mineralogy, page 109.
all the properties of the original sparry fluor. The most striking: of the Author's experiments appears to us to be the following; at least with regard to his manner of accounting for the phense mena, and the inferences he draws from it, relating to the constituent principles of Aints, quartz, and other similar fub. stances.
On subjecting a portion of this spar to distillation, with an equal quantity of the oil or strong spirit of vitriol, first, very strong elatiic vapours arose, and afterwards white fumes that covered the inner surface of the recipient, into which some wae ter had been previously put. These vapours firft formed a white Spot on the furface of the water, which by degrees spread intirely over it, and increased to such a thickness, as to prevent any further immediate access of the vapour to the surface of the water. On agitating the receiver, however, this cruft, being thereby broken into several pieces, funk to the bottom. Immediately afterwards a new cruft was formed, on the contact of the fucceeding vapours with the surface of the water, now afresh exposed to them. The water in the receiver was now found to contain a considerable quantity of a new acid, disengaged, and expelled, from the calcareous basis of the spar, by the superior attraction and power of the vitriolic acid.
The white cruf, which first appeared on the surface of the water in the receiver, and which afterwards funk to the bottom, being collcded and accurately examined by the Author, was found by him to pusless all the properties of a real Silex, or flints subílance. It could not to diffolved, for instance, in any of the acids ; nor would it form any paste with water. It was disfolved on being boiled in an alcaline lixivium. It suffered no change from fire, when exposed fingle to its action ; but on the addition of an alcali, it melted into glass. This glass, mixed with thrice its own quantity of vegetable fixed alcali, melted into a blue mals; which being pounded, and put into a damp celiar, very soon ran per deliguium, and turned into a gelatinous substance. An acid precipitated a powder from it; and lastly, it was difioived in borax, without the least effervescence.
The remarkable inference (as we think it may be justig termed) drawn by the Author from the circumstances of this process, is, that this filea, or finty fubitance, thus produced from the sparry fluor, is foicly compounded of the acid of spar united with the particles of the water in the receiver. Fıcm fome other procefics he concludes that the whole of this fingular acid may be converted, by the addition of water, into film, cr fiint: and that the water is an essential or neceffary ingre. dient in this compound body, he infers from other procefiis; in which it appears that when the receiver contained Alichol, or 7