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prevent this inconvenience to the court, the emperor, after fufficient time is allowed to the tradesmen to follow, orders them to be burnt out of their tents.'
The character of Actemad-ul-Dowla, the history of whore early life and rise to power is very remarkable, will be read with pleasure by the friends of virtue and mankind :
. Soon after the court returned to Agra, the good old vifier, Aco temâd-ul-Dowla, the emperor's father-in-law, gave up a life, which, on account of his many virtues, had become dear to the people. Bred up in the school of Adversity, A&temâd ul-Dowla had learned to subdue his paflions, to listen to the dictates of Reason, to feel for the misfortunes of mankind. Having raised himself from fervitude to authority, from indigence to honour and wealth, he knew the doties of every station. He was not less conversant with the world in practice, than he was from his extensive reading and the well-weighed reflections of his own mind. An economist in every thing, but in charity; he was only covetous of wealth to relieve the needy and the poor. He chose rather to maintain the dignity of his rank by the number of his friends, than by that of domestics, followers, and llaves. The people loved him as a father, but feared him as a father 100; for he tempered severity with moderation, and lenity with the rigour of the laws. The empire Pourised under his wise adminiftration. No evil but luxury prevailed. That weed takes root in prosperity; and, perhaps, can never be eradicated from fo rich a foil.– The empreis was inconsolable for the dea:h of her father. She proposed, at once, as a proof of her affection and magnificence, to perpetuate his memory in a monument of solid silver. The imperial architect soon convinced her, that a metal so precious would not be the most lasing means of transmitting the visier's fame to pofterity: “ All ages,” said he, are full of avarice; and even ihe empire of the house of Timur, like all sublunary things, is subject to revolution and change.” She dropt her purpose; and a magnificent fabric of None still retains, in Agra, the name of a femad. ul Dowla.'
Mr. Dow has drawn the character of the emperor Jehangire with so malierly a hand, and it is in itself so striking, that we shall lay a considerable pare of it before our Readers :
Jehangire was rieither vicious nor virtuous in the extreme. His bad actions proceeded from paflion; and his good frequently from whim. Violent in his measures without cruelty, merciful without feeling, proud without dignity, and generous without acquiring friends. A slave to his pleasures, yet a lover of busineís; destitute of all religion, yet full of fuperftition and vain fears. Firm in nothing but in the invariable rigour of his juttice, he was changeable in his opinions, and often the dupe of those whom he deipiled. Sometimes calm, winning, and benevolent, he gained the affections of those who knew him not; at other times, morose, captious, re. served, he became terrible to those in whom he most confided. In public, he was familiar, complaisant, and caly to all; he made no distinction between high and low; he heard with patience the complaints of the mear.elt of his subjeđs, and greatnets was never a fe. 8
curity against his justice: in private, he was thoughtful, cold, and filent; and he often clothed his countenance with such terror, that Afiph Jäh frequently fied from his presence, and the Sultapa, in the plenitude of her influence over him, was known to approach him on trembling knees. His affection for his children bordered on weakness. He was as forgetful of injuries as he was of favours. In war he had no abilities; he was fond of peace and tranquillity; and rather a lover than an encourager of the arts of civil life. Naturally averse to tyranny and oppression, property was secure under his ad ministration : he had no avarice himself to render him unjust, and he was the determined and implacable enemy of extortion in others. He was a man of science and of literary abilities; and the memoirs of his life, which he penned himself, do him more honour as a good writer, than the matter, as a great monarch. Upon the whole, lehangire, though not a faultless man, was' far from being a bad prince: he had an inclination to be virtuous, and his errors proceeded from a defect more than from a depravity of soul : his mother was thought to have introduced a cincture of madness into his blood; and an immoderate use of wine and opium rendered sometimes frantic a mind naturally inflamed.
“Though Jehangire was often serious and diftant among his domestics, he was fond of throwing off the character of the emperor, and of enjoying freely the conversation of his subjects. He often disappeared in the evening from the palace, and dived into obscure punch-houses, to pass some hours in drinking and talking with the lower fort. He had no enemies, and he was under no apprehensions concerning the safety of his person. Being in the hall of audience, accessible to all ranks of men, after the performance of the usual ceremonies, he was often known in his nocturnal excursions, Bat the people loved his familiar openness, and did not by rudeness abuse the trust reposed in them by their prince. He often defired his companions at the bowl to ask no favours of him, lest Selim, in his cups, might promise what JEHANGIRE, in his fober senses, would not chose to perform. When the liquor began to inflame him, he was rather mad than intoxicated. He few from one extreme of pas. fion to another; this moment joyful, the next melancholy and drowned in tears. When in this situation, he was fond of arguing upon abftrufe fubjc&ts. Religion was his favourite topic. He fome. times praised the Mahommedan faith, sometimes that of the Chriltians; he was now a follower of Zoroafter, and now of Brahma. In the midst of these devout profeffions, he would, fometimes, as farting from a dream, exclaim, That the prophets of all nations were impostors; and that he himself, should his indolence permit him, could form a better system of religion than any they had imposed on the world. When he was fober, he was divested' of every idea of religion, having been brought up a Deift under the tuition of his father Akbar.
• The variety of opinions, on the subject of religion, which prevailed in India, occafioned great uneasiness both to Jehangire and his father Akbar. The tenets of Mahommedanism, which the fac mily of Timur had brought along with them into their conquests, were the religion etablished by law; but the majority of sheir fubje&ts were of different persuasions. The followers of the Brahmin faith were the most numerous, and the next were the Persian Guebres, who worshipped the eleinent of Fire, as the belt representative of God. The Cristians of Europe and of Armenia pofTeffed several factories in the principal cities and ports, and they wandered in pursuit of commerce over all the empire. The different opinions among all these sects, on a subject which mankind reckon of the latt impos. tance, were the source of disputes, animofiries, and quarrels. Akbar was chagrined. He tolerated every religion; he admitted men of all persuasions into his confidence and service; and he had formed ferious thoughts of promulgating a new faith, which might reconcile the minds of all his subjects. He esteemed himself as equal in abilicies to Mahommed, and he had more power to enforce his doctrine. But, foreseeing the dittractions which this arduous measure might accafion, he dropt his delign; and, instead of establishing a new faith, contented himself with giving no credit to any of the old fyftems of religion, Jehangire in his youth had imbibed his father's principles. He began to write a new code of divine law; but he had neither the auiterity nor the abilities of a prophet. He shewed more wisdom in relinquishing, shan in forming such a visionary scheme.
His exceflive severity in the execution of imparcial justice, was the great line which masks the features of the character of Jehangire. He had no respect of persons when he animadverted upon crimes. His former favour was obliterated at once by guilt; and he persevered with undeviating rigour, to revenge upon the great, the injuries done to the low. The story of Seif Alla remains as a monument of his favage justice. The liter of the favourite Sultana had a son by her bulband Ibrahim, the Suba of Bengal, who, from his tender years had been brought up at court by the empress, who having no fons by Jehangire, adopted Seif Alla for her own. The emperor was fond of the boy; he even often feated him upon his throne. At twelve years of age Alla returned to his father in Bengal. Jehangise gave him a letter to the Suba, with orders to appoint him go. vernor of Burdwan. Alla, after having resided in his government some years, had the misfortune, when he was one day riding on an clephant through the street, to tread by accident a child to death. The parents of the child followed Alla to his house: they loudly demanded an exemplary punifhment on the driver ; and the gover. nor, confidering it an accident, refused their requeft, and ordered them to be driven away from his door: they abused him in very opprobrious terms; and Alla, proud of his rank and family, ex. pelled them from the district of Burdwan.
• Jehangire residing at that time in the city of Lahore, they found their way, after a long journey on foot, to the presence: they called aloud for justice; and the emperor wrote a letter to Alla with his own hand, with peremptory orders to restore to the injured parents of the child their poffeflions, and to make them ample amends for their loss and the fatigue of their journey. The pride of Alla was hurt at the victory obtained over him; and instead of obeying the orders of his prince, he threw them into prison, till they made submissions to him for their conduct. But as Toon as they were released, they travelled again to Lahore. Allah was alarmed, and wrote letters to the Sultana and Afiph Jâh, to prevent the petitioners from being admitted into the presence. They hovered to no effect, for some months, about the palace : they could not even come within hear. ing of the emperor, till one day that he was taking his pleasure in a barge upon the river: they pressed forward through the crowd, and thrice called out aloud for justice: the emperor heard them, and he recollected their persons. He ordered the barge to be rowed that instant to the bank; and, before he inquired into the nature of their complaint, he wrote an order for them to receive a pension for life from the Imperial treasury. When they had explained their grierances, he faid not a word, but commanded Alla to appear immedi. ately at court.
Alla obeyed the Imperial command; but he knew not the intèntions of Jehangire, which that prince had locked up in his owa breait. The youth encamped with his retinue, the night of his ar. rival, on the opposite bank of the river ; and sent a messenger to announce his coming to the emperor. Jehangire gave orders for one of his elephants of state to be ready by the dawn of day; and he at the same time directed the parents of the child to attend. He himself was up before it was light, and having crossed the river, he came to the camp of Alla, and commanded him to be bound. The parents were mounted upon the elephant; and the emperor ordered The driver to tread the unfortunate young man to death. But the driver, afraid of the resentment of the Sultana, passed over him several times, without giving the elephant the necessary directions : the emperor, however, by his threats, obliged him at last to execute his orders. He retired home in silence; and issued out his commands to bury Alla with great pomp and magnificence, and that the court thould go into mourning for him for the space of two mouns,
_" I loved him ;" laid Jehangire, “ but justice like necellity Mould bind monarchs.”
The following short narrative will afford a fresa proof that persecution can never be attended with good effects :
· The emperor had observed, that during die diftress occafioned by the late famine, the superstitious Hindoos, instead of cultivating their lands, few to the frines of their gods. Though neither an enthusiast, nor even attached to any fyllcm of religion, he was ensaged at their neglc&t of the means of subalterice, for the uncertain relief to be obtained by prayer. They have a thouland gods," faid he, yet the thousand have not '
been able to guard them from famine. This army of divinities,” continued he, “ initead of be. ing beneficial to their votaries, distract their attention by their own numbers ; and I am therefore determined to expel them from my empire.” These were the words of Shaw Jehan, when he signed an ediit for breaking down the idols, and for demolishing the temples of the Hindoos: the measure was impolitic, and, in the event, cruel. The zealous followers of the Brahmin religion, rose in defence of their gods, and many enthusiasts were massacred in thcir presence. Shaw Jehân faw the impropriety of the perfecution; he recalled the edia, and was heard to'lay, " That a prince who wiles to have
Subjects, must take them with all the trumpery and bawbles of their religion.”
The succeeding paragraph will shew the great wealth to which a visier, who was of an excellent character, might alrive, during the flourishing state of the empire of Hindottan:
Though three sons 'and five daughters survived the visier, he adopted his grandson Dara, the imperial prince, and constituted bim heir to all his fortune. He excused himself to his sons, by saying, that he had already raised them to high ranks and employments in the state ; and that, if they conducted themselves with prudence and wisdom, the favour of the emperor would be to them an ainple fortune. “ But, Mould Folly be the ruler of your conduct,” continued Afiph, you do not deserve to possess the wealth which I have acquired by my services. There was prudence in the conduct of Aliph upon this occasion. The emperor loved money ; and be might have availed himself of the law, which constitutes the prince the heir of all his officers; and a dispute of that kind might prove fatai to the influence and interest of the family of the visier. He, however, divided, before his death, three hundred and seventy-five thousand pounds among his children and servants. Dara, in terms of bis will, took pofferlion of the bulk of his fortune, which, in coin, in jewels, in plate, elephants and horses, amounted to near four millions sterling, exclusive of his estates in land, which, according to the tenures in India, reverted to the crown.'
One of the most important and interesting parts of the present Work, is the account of the civil war between the sous of Shaw Jehân. The history of this war displays surprising turns of fortune, ,admirable exertions of courage and conduct, and uncommon scenes of diftress. It exhibits, in a particular manner, the extraordinary incidents, and the great valour, poJicy, dissimulation, and artifice, which at length fixed Aurungnebe upon the throne. We shall finish our extracts with che concluding fate of Dara, the eldest son of Shaw jehin, and who had always been intended by him for his succesfür in the empire. Dara, after paling through the greatest difficulties and calamities, was at last traiterously dclivered up into the hands of Aurungzebe.
! The emperor, though he rejoiced at the news that his brother had fallen into his hands, was full of perplexity and indecision. Ils called a council of his nobles, and they differed in their opinions ; fome declaring for sending him by another rout to the caitle of Gualiàr; some that he hould be carried through the city, to convince mankind that he was fallen for ever. Many advised against a mea fure that might be full of danger from the humanity of the people; a few argued, that such conduct would degrade the dignity of we family of Timur. Others maintained, to whose opinion the caperor himself seemed to lean, that it was necessary he mould pass thro' the capital, 40 attonith mankind with the absolute power ind invine cible fortune of Aurungzebe.