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mentators and critics have more widely differed. His Lordship rejects all their various expofitions, even that of his favourite fcripture critic, Dr. Samuel Clarke. In order to afcertain and clear up the true fenfe of this famous paffage, our Noble Differtator takes in every aid which the compafs of his extenfive reading and reflection afforded him; but he more particularly infifts on the connexion which it has with the foregoing part of the epiftle. The immediate connexion, fays he, of those four verfes, is evidently with the four verfes that immediately precede them; namely, the 18-22: but to fee how all the eight verfes, from the 18th to the 25th, ftand immediately connected with what goes before, we muft look as far back as the xth chapter; otherwife we shall be apt to think, that this portion of fcripture comes in altogether abruptly, and that it is a part of the epiftle detached from the reft. It may at the fame time be of ufe to fhew, how all thefe verfes, together with that part of the epiftle with which they are immediately connected, ftand related to the whole. Thofe commentators, who have confidered this text apart from its true connexion, have left great scope to their own fancies and imaginations in interpreting it. But a juft regard to the connexion will in all probability tie us down to its precife meaning.'

His Lordship then proceeds with his learned investigation of this connexion; in which he endeavours to establish the doctrine of a future paradifaical State in "the thousand years reign," to which he fuppofes the apoftle to have referred: when God will dwell again with men.-That we fhall come to the Mediator of the new covenant, in the paradifaical fate of the thousand years, he thinks is plain; fince, fays he, it is the illuftrious and happy ftate of the Mediator's kingdom, Dan. ii. 44, 45. vii. 13, 14. And Jefus promifes to him that overcometh, that " he will grant to him to fit down on his throne, as he overcame, and fat down on his Father's throne," Rev. iii. 21. And this promife muft relate to the paradifaical state. For in the truly celeftial ftate, at the confummation of all things, Chrift is to "give up all power to God, even the Father, that fo he may be all in all," 1 Cor. xv. 28.'

Although his Lordfhip writes in a manner which fhews that he is himself perfectly convinced of the validity of his hypothefis, he, nevertheless, expreffcs himself in the moft unaffuming and becoming terms. In a paragraph, p. 301, where he recapitulates the fubftance and purport of his whole chain of arguments on this fubject of the millennium, he modeftly fays, I fatter myself, from what has been faid under feveral of the particulars of the text, which have been here explained, that the Reader is by this time almoft ready to concur in opinion with me, that the ftate defcribed by them, is neither the prefent ftate



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of the gofpel, which obtained when this epiftle was written, nor yet that in which it will be wound up at the confummation of all things; but a paradifaical state (at the reftitution of all things to their original ftate" in the new heavens and the new earth)," which will take place between the two other.'

This doctrine, in the feveral views of it which have been given by expofitors and divines, is generally looked upon as extremely indeterminate and vifionary. We have no where seen it maintained more confiftently than in the prefent differtation, nor treated in a manner more strictly conformable to the whole tenor of the scriptures, fo far as they may be fupposed to relate to this mysterious and much contraverted point.

As all the other contents of these volumes have been long before the public, any particular account of them will not be expected from us; we fhall therefore only obferve, in brief, that Vol. I. contains, befide a very large introductory Preface, and a Poftfcript to the Preface, firft, An accurate and wellconnected Abstract of the Scripture Hiftory of the Apostles, in a Tabular Scheme representing their Commiffions, Travels, and Tranfactions, in one view; efpecially with regard to what peculiarly belonged to the Apoftolical Office, and the Method in which they propagated the Chriftian Religion. Secondly, Ar Effay on the Teaching and Witness of the Holy Spirit; in which the Author fhews the Holy Spirit to have been the greatest WITNESS to the TRUTH of the Chriftian Religion.

Vol. II. contains, first, the Essay on the Diftinction between Apoftles, Elders, and Brethren. Secondly, An Effay on the Time when Paul and Barnabas became, and were known to be, APOSTLES. Thirdly, An Efay on the unanimous Fudgment, or Epiftle, of the Apoftles, Elders, and Brethren at Jerufalem, to the Brethren of the Gentiles in Antioch, Syria, and Cilicia; about their abstaining from Things offered to Idols, from Blood, from Things firangled, and from Fornication: With an Appendix, being a Paraphrafe and Notes on the xviith Chapter of Leviticus.

In the third volume, we have, first, The Essay on the feveral Difpenfations of God to Mankind, as revealed in Scripture; which hath gone through two, or more, editions. Secondly, Notes on the foregoing Ejay; which, in themselves, form a large and confiderable tract, fraught with that found and critical biblical learning, for which the Author is justly diftinguifhed: his grand view is to answer the objections raised by Deifts, &c. The Notes are followed by feven papers; fome of which are entitled Differtations, and others Expofitions: and all relating to various Scripture doctrines, in connexion with the principal tract,—the Effay on the Difpenfations. The Author is, in general, very ftrictly attached to the literal fenfe of the more myfterious and miraculous parts of the facred writings; as, for instance, in

his account of the Fall, he is not, in any measure, inclined to admit the allegorical interpretation. For Mofes to have inferted a parable, fays he, in the middle of an history, 'without giving us any notice of its being a parable, would not have been by any means, worthy of to accurate an hiftorian as the Writer of this hiftory will, upon ftriét examination appear to be.' And in the conclufion of his differtation on this fubject he draws this inference, that the account which Mofes gives us of the temptation and fall, confidered as a literal hiftory, was as likely and as natural a way for the great enemy of God and man to - have feduced the first man and woman by, as any we can now poffibly devife.'-Some of the most celebrated critics and commentators have, however, decided on this point, very differently; and feem, in our opinion, to have caft the greatest weight into the allegorical scale.

But the moft fhining part of Lord Barrington's character, as we apprehend, was his exemplary candour toward those who differed from him, in regard to religious fentiments; and, above all, his fteady attachment to the principles of liberty, both in ftate and church. In this refpect, indeed, his memory carries with it its own encomium; yet as accident has thrown in our way an extract from this Nobleman's funeral fermon, preached by his chaplain, it will not be thought impertinent, fhould we conclude this article with a few paffages from that part of the dif courfe which contains the encomiums on his Lordship's abilities and virtues.


Speaking of Lord B.'s " principles of Chriftian and Civil Liberty," the preacher obferves, that they were rational, demonftrative, and immoveable;" adding, that "his happy faculty of communicating his thoughts upon any fubject, made his converfation extremely agreeable and inftructive to men of fenfe and tafte."-" He had the utmost abhorrence to all kinds of perfecution, as being perfectly Antichriftian."-" He owned no mafter but Chrift in his church and kingdom; and maintained that REVEALED religion did not fubvert but affift NATURAL." For thefe and the like fentiments, we are told, "he was calumniated by the crafty, the ignorant, the envious, and the bigotted;" but that his patience and fortitude furmounted every obftacle of this kind.

"His firft and feady view was always truth and right; and his fine genius, and juft fentiments, gave him that diftinguished fhare in the esteem of the greatest and beft men + this nation ever knew; which, together with his vindications of revelation,

He bare confiders Mofes as the Author of the book of Genefis; but in a fubfequen: effay he, on farther examination, afcribes that book to Samuel.

+ Somers, King, Cowper, Nevil, Locke, Clarke, Newton, &c. REV. Dec. 1772.

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will make his name immortal.”—“ In a word, he was a ftrict obferver of the laws of God and his country; a fhining example of fobriety, regularity, and juftice; a terror to evil doers, and a moft affiduous and able patron of afflicted virtue, and the juft and natural rights of mankind: religious without enthusiasm, zealous without bigotry, learned without pedantry.—Such was the Lord Viscount Barrington; and fuch, too, is the undoubted merit of his writings, that we can readily fubfcribe to the very brief encomium bettowed on them in the fame discourse, where the preacher obferves that they will not fail to convince pofterity of the foundness of his head, and the integrity of his heart."

We do not obferve that any account is given of this NOBLE AUTHOR, in Mr. Walpole's CATALOGUE.

ART. VIII. Letters concerning the prefent State of Poland. Together with the Manifefto of the Courts of Vienna, Petersburgh, and Berlin. And the Letters Patent of the King of Pruffia. 8vo. Is. Payne. 1773


S confiftent friends to the common rights of mankind, our generous countrymen cannot, furely, with indifference, fee a brave and numerous people fall a prey to their encroaching and rapacious neighbours; for, though the reigning policy of our prefent government, co-operating with the neceffities of the times, may render peace the molt defirable object of our public views, yet our attention will naturally be engaged, and our commiferation excited, by the diftreffes of Poland and we must feel ourselves highly interested in the fate of a once great and independent, but now ruined nation.-If there be any among us, who feem to pay but little regard to the dreadful accumulated misfortunes which, within a few years past, have befallen that miferable country,-rent by a civil war, depopulated by the plague, and fubjected to foreign invafion,this inattention must have proceeded from our general ignorance of the circumstances, and the want of true information with respect to the views and proceedings of thofe neighbouring powers who, fatally for her, have interfered in her inteftine commotions, and under the fpecious pretence of reftoring her peace, have robbed her not only of her national independence, but even of the best part of her territories. This information, however, with refpect to the laft-mentioned extraordinary procedure of the three ufurping courts, may, in a great measure, be obtained from the fenfible, intelligent, and fpirited Author of the publication before us; who appears to be master of his fubject, and to have written from a perfonal knowledge of thofe facts on which his ftrong and lively reprefentations are founded.


Thefe Letters are four in number, as we learn from the Editor's advertisement, prefixed to the prefent publication, which contains only the first of the feries; together with the Manifefto delivered in September laft, at the court of Warfaw, by the refpective minifters of the three courts mentioned in the titlepage.

The Editor informs the public, that thefe Letters would have been publifhed fooner, if he could have obtained the permiffion of his Correfpondent, their Author; but that the Writer would not grant it till he had quitted Dantzig, from whence they are dated. The rights of nations, fays the Editor, have been fo grossly and openly violated in Poland, that he [the Letter-writer] did not chufe to expofe himself to the refentment of princes who know no other law than that of their own interefts or paffions. "I leave you entirely at liberty, fays he, to make what use you please of my letters, provided you conceal my name, and wait till I am out of the reach of Coffacks, Calmoucks, and Huffards. I have no mind to till the ungrateful foil of Siberia, or breathe the baleful air of Spandaw."


It is of little confequence to the public, continues the Advertifer, who is the writer of the Letters, or to whom he addreffed them. His fituation was fuch as qualified him to investigate the truth of the facts he relates: whether his reafoning upon them be juft or not, every one will judge for himself."

The Letters Patent of the King of Pruffia, we are told, will be prefixed to the fourth Letter; in which the justice of that prince's claim is particularly examined. It is added, that the fecond and third Letters are ready for the prefs; and that the Editor is employed in revifing the laft. The originals are written in German.



In the Manifefto of the courts of Petersburgh, Vienna, and Berlin, thefe confederate powers fet out with profeffing the most benevolent regard for the welfare of Poland; and that to prevent the dreadful effects of thofe diffentions which, as in former inftances, might be expected to arife on the death of the late King Auguftus III. they had been happily inftrumental in procuring "the free and legal election of Stanislaus, the reigning King, and in the forming of many useful and falutary establishments;" fo that "every thing feemed to promife to Poland and her neighbours, a firm and lafting tranquillity." So far there was certainly great merit in the conduct of Ruffia, in particular. But this artful ftate-paper goes on to observe,.. that

unhappily, in the midft of these promifing appearances, the fpirit of difcord feized upon one part of the nation: citizen armed against citizen; the fons of faction feized the reins of authority; and laws, and order, and public fafety, and juftice, and police, and commerce, and agriculture; all are either gone Hh 2


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