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the management of the disease out of the hands of Nature, or the conftitution, and to force a crifis:a practiced not only des fenfible, but eligible, when there are apprehenfions of great danger likely to enfue, in some future period of the fever nor when there are figns of this danger having already taken place. He had before fhewn that, in general, the increafe of a fimple fever depended on the gradual diminution of the fecretions and excretions, and on too great a determination of the humors, ors their congeftion, upon fome of the internal organs, in confe quence of fuch a diminution, and on which the danger attending fevers principally depends. The method of conquering or! removing these impediments to the circulation through the internal vifcera, and of re-establishing order in the fyftem, confifts in the exhibition of a certain clafs of active medicines, which have lately, by experience, been found capable of producing thefe falutary effects; and for the knowledge of which, we fhall obferve, we are indebted to empirical practice, rather than to theoretical reafoning. Our Readers will naturally suppole that we allude to the late fuccefsful exhibition of James's. pwder, and other active antimonials in febrile diforders, and. which are imagined to be poffeffed of the power of extinguishing fevers. The Author's opinion on this fubject, and particul Jarly on the midus operandi of medicines of this class, may be, in part, collected from the following extracts.

When a fever is mild, and goes on well, the Author thinks it is abfurd to use violent means, or fuch as are more than adu equate to the end propofed; that is, to interfere, more than is abfolutely neceflary, with the operations of the constitution 3 but when increase of bead-ach, difficulty of breathing, anxiety, pervigilium, or delirious fleep, &c. fhew that accumulations are taking place in fome of the principal vifcera, more surely ought to be done than now and then injecting a clyfter, adminiftering a faline draught with contrayerva or crabs eyes, and applying a blifter.'

In fuch cafes he thinks himself warranted, by an extenfive experience of the febrituge powers of the active antimonials, to declare them fuperior to all the other remedies with which the Materia Medica fupplies us; and that when the aforesaid dan gerous congeftions have been the result of the febrile commos tion, they furnish us with the most efficacious means of avert ing the impending danger. Their power, he thinks, does not depend folely on their increasing the excretions (for there are other remedies equally certain in this refpect) but on the manner in which they promote the evacuations; at a time when a powerful and fpeedy change must be made, in order to fave the patient. This change he fuppofes them to produce, by increafing fome important excretion, without much slimulus :

a moft

a moft defirable quality, particurlaly in those cases, where ftimulants feem to be indicated, and yet a local inflammation of the brain, lungs, or abdominal vifcera, render the exhibition of them dangerous. Los


It often happens, he obferves, that a large dose of an antimonial shall open all the fluices at once; and remove, in a very furprizing manner, all the violent and threatening symptoms of a fever, and indeed the fever itself, in a few hours.' He further adds that while, like common emetics or purges, they act in the firft paffages, their efficacy is alfo extended to the circulation and finer excretions; and that, though they act by a fimulus, yet it is of a different kind from that of the heating fudorifics; which, even in those cafes, where the weakness of the pulfe feems to demand them, often fatally rivet any confiderable obftructions affecting the principal vifcera, by urging the blood too violently into the veffels of thefe organs already overcharged.


On this fubject we fhall ftop to remark, that we do not clearly fee for what reasons the Author, fully convinced as he appears to be of the fuperior virtues of the active antimonial medicines in fevers, should preferably recommend the exhibition of thefe only univerfal febrifuges the Materia Medica affords," (as he elsewhere terms thefe antimonial preparations) in that late and formidable period of a fever, in which delirium, diffi cult refpiration, and other alarming fymptoms already fhew themselves, and indicate that dangerous congeftions in the vifera have taken place. How proper foever the having recourfe to them under these defperate circumftances may be, we cannot help thinking, from his own rationale of their mode of producing relief, and ftill more from the evidences which have been produced of their efficacy and fafety, in the first stages of a fever, that prudence seems to indicate, and experience to justify, the early exhibition of them; without waiting till the experiment becomes neceffary, or mis-fpending time in the use of the orthodox and flow methods, avowedly less efficacious. The Author indeed afterwards, in a fhort paffage, defends them against the objections and imputations of those who have repre fented them as dangerous and even desperate means of relief; and afferts that they may be given in the early ftage of a fever with the most perfect fafety: but upon the whole he seems rather to place this clafs of medicines in the light of an ultimum. refugium, to which the phyfician ought to have recourse only when the ordinary and established means have failed in procuring relief.


Notwithstanding this remark of ours on the Author's feeming inconfiftency on this fubject, we should do him injuftice


were we not to acknowledge that he elsewhere difcuffes this fubject with a very commendable fhare of candour and liberality of fentiment; and appears fufficiently free from those prejudices which the regulars of the faculty, often very justly, but in fome cafes too haftily, entertain against their empirical brethren. In fpeaking of Dr. James's powder, he declares that though he is no friend to noftrums, yet it often does what timid practitioners will not attempt in urgent cafes.' On this occafion he is led to inquire into the comparative merit of the active antimonials; to all which he has given a fair trial in the Course of his practice. With the refult of fome of his obfer. vations on this head we fhall clofe this article.

It has been very generally and justly objected to all the antimonial medicines, that they are manifeftly unequal in their operation. This inequality partly arifes from their mode of preparation and strength, and in part from the chemical changes or decompofition they undergo in their fubfequent admixture with the various contents of the ftomach and inteftines. To both thefe objections the Author thinks that Dr. James's powder (the powers of which he had frequent occafions of experiencing, during his fuperintendance of a naval hospital abroad) is equally liable with the other preparations of antimony. He found it in many cafes an excellent medicine; but, upon the whole, believes it has little, if any, fuperiority over emetic tartar accurately mixed with the calx of antimony.' Its occafional fuperiority to the laft-mentioned preparation, particuJarly in dangerous cafes, he attributes principally to Dr. James's judicious direction to increase very confiderably the dofe of his powder, if the former has produced no fenfible operation: a rule, which he thinks is not fufficiently attended to by those who adminifter the other antimonial preparations, which are too frequently under-dofed. He concludes however with declaring, that though he does not think it incumbent on him to have recourfe to Dr. James's powder in every flight cafe, which, his experience has taught him, may be relieved by other antimonial preparations; yet that it is the duty of every phyfician never to refufe directing it, in proper cafes, if the patient or relations defire it, or to fuperintend and affift its operation

By the addition of the calx'antimonii (a fubftance perfectly inert) nothing more can be intended than to enlarge the bulk of the medicine, in order that the dofe may be more easily afcertained; and its accurate admixture with the tartar emetic can only be neceffary, in order that every portion of the mixt may contain a certain and definite quantity of the laft-mentioned fubftance: the only active and efficacious ingredient in the compofition,


when it is neceffary. In dangerous cafes, he adds, the phyfician may be of great ufe, not only in accommodating the dofe to the ffrength of the patient, and exigency of the cafe, but in obviating its violent effects.

Before we conclude, we fhould obferve that the prefent pub lication is to be followed by another volume; by which, when the Author's intire fcheme is feen, his arrangement of difeafes may poffibly be cleared from a part of that perplexity in which it appears at prefent to be involved, by means of the numerous repetitions, exceptions, &c. which occur in it; and which feem to arife from the Author's mounting up too high in the fcale of caufes, in the forming his arrangement of diseases. For the prefent, we may give our idea of the merits or demerits of this performance in a few words, by faying that the matter of it appears to us greatly fuperior to the form.

Art. X. The Principles of Latin and English Grammar. By Alexander Adam, Rector of the High School of Edinburgh, 8vo. 3 s. 6d. Cadell. 1772.


HIS Grammar has, in our opinion, no inconfiderable fhare of merit: the rules and definitions are concife and perfpicuous; the arrangement is natural, and the manner of illuftration plain and eafy.-The preface is well written, and the following extract from it will give our Readers no unfavourable idea of the Author's abilities.

• Grammar is founded on common fenfe. Every fentiment expreffed by words exemplifies its rules, and the ignorant obferve them, as well as the learned. The principles of grammar are the first abstract truths, which a young mind can comprehend. Children difcover their capacity for understanding the rules of grammar, by putting them in practice. It is indeed difficult to make young people attend to what passes in their own minds. But perhaps this is partly owing to the abstruse manner in which it is laid before them. The principles of grammar will be moft fuccefsfully taught by arranging and explaining them according to the order of nature. Every art is more or less involved in obfcurity by the hard terms peculiar to it. In no art is this more remarkably the cafe than in gramThe terms it employs are fo abftract, that, unless they be properly explained, even perfons of advanced years cannot understand them. Could this inconvenience be thoroughly removed, the principles of grammar might be adapted to the meaneft capacity: for were the nature of the different parts of fpeech, and their use in fentences properly explained, the mind would recognife its own operations, and perceive that grammar is nothing elfe than a delineation of thofe rules, which


we observe in every expreffion of thought by words. Thus the ftudy of grammar would not only improve the memory, but ferve in a high degree to ftrengthen and enlarge all the faculties of the mind.


• Whatever we learn firft, is the moft familiar to us. For this reafon children will moft eafily apprehend the principles of grammar, when explained and exemplified in that language, which is natural to them. Hence it feems proper to begin in grammar, as in reading, with the language of our own country. But as moft of the modern languages in Europe are in a great measure founded on the Latin, and as a very confiderable part of our knowledge, with regard both to fcience and tafte, is derived from Latin authors, the ftudy of Latin grammar has generally been preferred to that of the grammar of the mother tongue. This hath particularly been the practice in this country. Till of late very little attention hath been paid to the Study of English grammar; in confequence of which many irregularities have crept into the language, which might otherwife have been prevented. Were the importance of the two languages to come into competition, that would no doubt deferve the preference, which we have the most frequent occafion to ufe. But to fuch as aim at polite literature, the study of both feems neceflary and the knowledge of the one' will be found highly conducive to that of the other. The English language hath received its greateft improvements from thofe who were mafters of claffical learning; and perhaps it cannot be thoroughly understood, without fome acquaintance with the Latin. It is certain, no one can properly tranflate from the one language into the other, without understanding the idioms of both. In order therefore to teach Latin grammar with fuccefs, we fhould always join with it a particular attention to the rudiments of English. This is the defign of the following attempt. And as in writing upon grammar, materials entirely new cannot be expected, the author hath with freedom borrowed from all hands, whatever he judged fit for his purpose. He acknowledges himself particularly indebted to Mr. Harris's Hermes with regard to the principles of universal grammar; to Wallis and Dr. Lowth, for moft of his obfervations concerning the English; and to Gerard Voffius, and Ruddiman, with refpec to the Latin.

The merit of any performance on this fubject muft in a great measure depend upon the method of illuftration and arrangement. In the prefent effay that arrangement hath been obferved, which appeared moft natural. The feveral parts of grammar are reduced to general principles, and after these are fubjoined particular obfervations and exceptions. The moft


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