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economy. The Author's class of universal diseases therefore comprehends all those in which there is such an assemblage of the general symptoms, that they predominate above any partial or local complaints, and form the principal part of the diftress, Thus a fever, and an epilepsy, are universal diseases, as they confist of some of the general symptoms; the number and nature of which we shall soon explain : whereas local diseases, which constitute the second class, are those in which, though certain degrees or proportions of some of the general symptoms are included, yet the predominant or most distinguishing part of the disease consists in the disorder of a particular organ or function of the body. Such, for instance, are blindness, deafness, or, to use one of the Author's examples, a cough ; in which the action of the lungs is disturbed, in consequence of an irritation of the larynx or trachea ; but which is unattended with pain, loss of appetite, or any of the general symptoms that constitute an universal disease.

As these general symptoms form the morbid state, and compose the basis of the important class of universal diseases, the description and treatment of which constitute the whole of the practical part of this first division of the present work, we Thall enumerate them, and summarily explain their nature and derivation.

These general symptoms being so many deviations from a ftate of health, the Author first properly conliders the several conditions resulting from the general regularity of the animal economy in a sound state; and from them deduces their oppofites, which form the symptoms, or, in other words, the elements of disease. Now the body is in a healthy state, when the ten following conditions exist in it: 1. When the degree of animal heat is such as gives a pleasant and agreeable sensa. tion. 2. When the appetites relich their natural objects, and return, in moderation, at the proper seasons, or af. ter due intervals. 3. When no pain is felt; 4. Or itching, 5. When the sleep is natural and refrelhing. 6. When there is no straitness or oppression about the præcordia. 7. When the breathing is free. 8. When the voluntary motions are pera formed agreeably to the will, with ease, readiness, and due degrees of strength. 9. When the organs of external fense re. ceive and transmit their respective impreslions in a proper and moderate degree ; and 10. When those of internal sense enable the mind to perceive clearly, and judge truly, of the impresfions that are made, and of the ideas which arise from memory and imagination.

• The difcufiion of the three remaining classes of Local, Sexpal, and Infantile diseases is reserved for a future pablication,


The deviations from, or the opposites to, these ten condi. tions of health conftitute, according to the Author's plan, fifteen general symptoms, or morbid affections, which are the component parts of all the numerous diseases to which the hu. man body is liable. To the first condition are opposed (1) Excessive heat, or (2) the sensation of excessive cold. The opposites to the second condition are (3) Sickness, and (4) Violent thirft: to which may be added, though they occur more rarely, and are rather local or sexual than general symptoms, the fames canina, the fatyriasis in men, and the furor uterinus in women. (5) Pain, and (6) Itching, are opposites to the third and fourth conditions ; as (7) Watchfulness, and (8) Somnolency, are to the fifth. (9) An oppression and sense of straitness about the præcordia, usually termed Anxiety by medical writers, and (10) Difficulty of breathing, are the contraries to the fixth and seventh conditions of health. (u) Weakness and relaxation of the muscular fibres, and its oppofice (12) Spasm or convulsion, where the muscles act contrary to the will, and sometimes exert unusual and unnatural degrees of strength, are deviations from and opposite to the eighth condition; as (13) Want of Sensibility, and (14) Super-sensation, or too high a degree of sensibility, or an unnatural proneness to irri. tation, are the contraries of the ninth. The last general symptom, and which is opposed to the tenth condition, is (15) Delirium, or that general disturbance and disorder of the internal fenses, when the faculties of the mind cannot be properly exercised, and accordingly the several powers of memory, imagination, and judgment, are weakened, confused, and perverted,

On one or more of these fifteen general symptoms, or more bid affections, considered as disordering the intire habit, Dr. Macbride founds his claffification of general or universal difeases, which he comprehends within nine orders. There we Thall particularly specify, together with some of their leading symptoms ; adding, merely by way of specimen or example, the titles of some of the genera, or the popular names of a few of the diseases, which he arranges under each respective order.

The Author's nine orders of universal diseases are the fol. lowing : 1. Fevers; the distinguishing symptoms of which are excessive heat, thirst, loss of appetite, weakness, and inability to sleep. II. Inflammations, external and internal; such as phlegmon, erysipelas, inflammatory quinsey, pleurisy, &c. Ill. Fluxes; or all those disorders in which there is a prætere natural discharge either of the fæcal matter, or of blood, or fome secreted fluid : such as diarrhea, hæmorrhages of various kinds, diabetes, &c. IV. Painful Disorders ; in which there is acute pain, without the distinguishing circumstances and figns of a true indammation, and without a leitled fever, or præter


natural discharge. This order comprehends the gout, colic, rheumatism, &c. V. Spafinodic Diseases ; of which the distinta guishing symptom is spalm, accompanied sometimes with pain, and sometimes with insensibility. The diseases of this order are the tetanus, locked jaw, hydrophia, epilepsy, &c. Vi. Inabilities and Privations; the distinguishing symptoms of which are somnolency, loss of strength, and in sensibility, and the genera comprehended under it are apoplexy, palsy, lethargy, &c. VII. Afthmatic Diseases; which are distinguished by difficulty of breathing, and comprehend the dyspnæa, orthopnea, asthma, &c. VIII. Mental Diseases; in which the memory, imagination and judgment, are all confused and parverted, without the distinguishing signs of fever or inflammation. This order contains only madness and melancholy. IX. Cachexies, or Humoral Diseases; in which there is a wasting or tumefaction of the whole or different parts of the body, cutaneous eruption, discolouring, or ulceration; attended with weakness, loss of appetite, pain, or some other general symptoms. Under this order come the dropsy, jaundice, mortification, scurvy, lues ve. nerea, and various other complaints.

The preceding analysis may fuffice as a specimen of the Author's manner of arranging his first and principal class of unis versal diseases into order and genera; which last are afterwards subdivided into species and varieties. On this head we shall only further observe, that the three other classes are divided in a fimilar manner, and that upon the whole the Author has pros perly avoided the minute and frequently perplexing accuracy of M. Sauvages; who (to give only an instance or two) has divided his order of Comata, or seepy diseases, into seven genera, which he has subdivided into no less than fixty-five species į and has made no less than i wenty-one diftinctions of lyncope or fainting. To give an idea of our Author's moderation in this respect, we shall add that the sum of his genera of universal, local, sexual, and infantile diseases is only 179, which in Saus vages's catalogue amounts to 315. This last number however is exceeded in the catalogue given by Linnæus, who divides diseases into 325 genera, and still more by that of Vogel, who mounts them up to 560.

In what goes before we have considered only the Author's scheme of arranging or claffing diseases; which is to be regarded not only in the light of an affitant to the memory of the learner, but as tending, so far as the arrangement approaches to a just and natural order, to the improvement of the art itself; by tracing the connections or affinities that different diseases bear to each other, and furnishing proper indications of cure for each. We shall now proceed to thew in what manner the has arranged the materials of the work itself, which contains,


as he informs us, the substance of a course of lectures that were read for some reasons in Dublin, and is divided into two parts ; one containing a view of the theory, and the other, of the practice of phyfic.

The first or institutionary part, which is divided into seven books, explains the principles on which the art is founded and may be read with pleasure even by those who would with only to be acquainted with the theory of medicine, considered as a curious and interesting branch of natural philosophy. Af: ter a summary view of the animal æconomy, and of the funccions of the body in a state of bealth, which form the subjects of the first book, the Author gives, in the second, an analysis of diseafes ; first enumerating those conditions of the corporeal frame, and of the animal functions, on which perfect health depends, and then particularly describing, in several distinct chapters, their contraries, which we have already briefly specified. After this particular view of all the immediate causes of the different species of general morbid affection, presented under fifteen general heads, or symptoms, he explains the remote or poffible causes which may co-operate with them in producing diseases.

These morbific dispositions must evidently arise either from the parts containing, or the solids of the human body, considered either as exceeding, or deficient, in strength and sensibility; fruin the various combinations of which qualities in the solids, the peculiarities of different conftitutions, distinguished by the appellation of temperaments, principally arise: or they may proceed from the state of the parts contained, or of the animal Auids; the different modifications or qualities of which have been pretty generally, and by the ancients were universally, held as the lources of all diseases. The theories of the four humours adopted by the Galenifts; the fulphur, and acid, and alcali, of the chemists; and the cubes, and spheres, and darts which the mechanical phyfiologists fancied they saw in the animal Auids, and confidered as the causes of all dileases, have, at different times, too much influenced the practice of physic, by inducing its professors to acquiesce supinely in ihe truth of the favourite theory which they adopted, and to regulate their practice by the indications derived from it; while they shut their eyes upon, or at least neglected to observe, the facts which might present themselves in opposition to ito

To this blind and obstinate attachment to particular theories, either wholly groundless, or adopted without proper modifications and a due regard to experience, it is in a great measure owing that, though the art of phylic has been cultivated during so many centuries, we are yet in possession of fu fmall a number of certain and appropriate remedies for particular ditemRev. Nov. 1772.


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pers or morbid affections : fuch, for instance, as the bark, for agues and intermittent fevers; mercury, that peculiar antidote to the ve nereal puilon ; opium, that fovereign remedy against pain ; to which we may, perhaps with some degree of confidence, add fixed air, as a substance capable of rendering the scorbutic virus inert : and which may probably be adapted to correct or destroy other kinds of morbid, and particularly putrid, acrimony. What has been already effected in this way, the Author justly obferves, may encourage us to hope that in time foniewhat may be ftruck out, that shall cure even the

gout and cancer. Terrible as the virus of a cancer may be, he adds, it is not more fo than the venereal was, until practitioners happily discovered the specific powers of guaiacum and mercury. Guicciardini, the celebrated Italian hiftorian, who was an eye-witness, relates that the lues venerea, for several years after it first broke out in Europe, proved fatal to a multitude of both sexes and all ages : many became fo horridly disfigured, that they remained useless, and subject to almost perpetual pains; and the best part of those who seemed to be cured, soon relapsed into the same misery. If it had fo happened then that a specific remedy had not been found out until this day, how many thousands of people must have perished in a more shocking condition than by the most inveterate cancer?'

After giving a sketch of Gaubius's five divifions of acrimony, viz. the acid, the alcaline, the putrefactive, the muriatic, and the ammoniacal, and the several species of diftress fupposed by him to be produced by them, the Author properly adds, ' ail this is perfectly fyftematical, and does very well to read; but when we come to look for these different species of acrimony in our patients, we shall not often be able either to find out or diftinguish them.'-The observation is undoubtedly just in this instance, and may with equal propriety be applied to many other medical theories, which have no other foundation than partial observations, diftaot or misupplied analogies, or are derived merely from the licentious imaginations of their respective inventors. But the Author seems, somewhat too decisively, or without proper modifications at least, to ciscourage, probably without intending it, a spirit of theoretical inquiry on medical subjects, in the following paragraph; where he observes that it will turn to most advantage, never to attempt inveftigating the peculiar nature of the different kinds of acrimony i for that would be pure loss of time.'- We are confident hova ever that, by this seemingly unlimited difluasive againft inquiring into the chemical qualities of the animal Suids in a diseased flaie, the Author does not mean totally to condemn a rational inquiry into she more intimate nature of tbe causes of certain


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