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• In the place of those placid regulations, which render mankind useful to their lords, we substituted, with prepofterous policy, FORCE, the abrupt expedient of barbarous conquerors. The pressure of taxation has, in the space of a few years, trebled the price of provisions of all kinds. The Company have, in the mean time, been endeavouring, by every poffible measure, to encrease their investments without raising the price. Various oppreflions have for this purpose been adopted : this wretched expedient is of short duration : the manufacturer may for one year, perhaps for two, redouble his induftry; but whilst the work of his hands is forced from him at a stated and arbitrary price, he sinks under an uncommon effort, fubject to despair. The principal servants of the Company, to conceal the evil, have found themselves obliged either to remit in the quality of the goods, or to raise the price to the manufacturer. Both expedients have been in part adopted; but it is a temporary remedy, without the hopes of effectuating a cure.

• The reasons already mentioned have contributed to deftroy the trade of Bengal with the rest of Asia : merchants can only procure the gleanings of the Company: the quality is inferior and the prices high: nations formerly supplied from Bengal, found themselves under the neceffity of establishing manufactures of the same kind at home, or to adapt their cloathing to their poverty : argument on this head is fupe: fluous : the plan must be totally and radically changed. The question is not to oblige the people to become filk-winders, spinners, and weavers, and to take the fruits of their labour, as it is practised at present, at an arbitrary price. Industry cannot be forced upon a people; let them derive advantage from toil, and indolence shall lose its hold. Ingenuity expires under the foolish despotism which defeats its own ends ; and human nature, in its moft wretched ftate, revolts against labour which produces nothing but an increase of toil.'

The enquiry concludes with a plan for restoring Bengal to its former prosperity. Mr. Dow proposes, in this view, that there be a new arrangement and settlement of landed property; that a paper currency and an invariable current coin be established; that monopolies be abolished, and free merchants encouraged; that an absolute toleration of all religions be allowed; that the executive and judicial powers be placed upon a proper and equitable foundation, and that they be kept distinct and separate from each other. For the particular regulations which are recommended under each of these heads, and the advantages that will arise from carrying the scheme into execution, 'we refer our Readers to the Work itself, which will few that the Author is poffefied of an enlarged understanding and a liberal mind. The plan, says he, to speak the least in its favour, is practicable in its great and general line. It would produce, even partially followed, immense, sudden, and permanent advantages; but no human forelight can absolutely estimate the precile fums. Though the Author of the Enquiry has not the vanity to fuppose that his scheme is, in all its branches, infal. Jible, he will venture to pledge himself to his country, that, should the more material parts of his fyftem be adopted, the advantages to be derived from it would not fall short of his calculations. His knowledge of the kingdom of Bengal, and its various resources, gives him a confidence on this subject, to which he is not intitled by his abilities.'

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Without pretending to any extraordinary knowledge of the Indian affairs, we cannot but concur with Mr. Dow, in thinking that the execution of his plan would be highly beneficial ; and we have paid the greater attention to the introductory part of the volume before us, on account of the present situation of the East India Company. ART. IV. The Advancement of Arts, &c. or Description of the useful

Machines and Models contained in the Repofitory of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce. Illuftrated by Defigns on fifty fisse Copper-plates. Together with an Account of the sea veral Discoveries and improvements. By William Bailey, Register to the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce. 4to. 21. 12 s. 6 d. Dodsley, &c. 1772. THE public are greatly indebted to the Society instituted

for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce, for its munificent and constant endeavours to promote every interest of this nation dependent on the improvements which ingenuity, industry, and emulation, may be excited to accomplish, in agriculture, manufactures, mechanics, chemistry, and the polite arts, either by honorary or pecuniary rewards. Nor have our American colonies been overlooked. Every part of the British empire hath, in some measure, already felt, and will hereafter more extenfively feel, the happy effects of this most useful and truly public-spirited institution.

It is with equal pleasure and aftonishment that we see such a multitude of improvements and discoveries produced, under the happy influence of a Society, which has not yet been twenty years in existence; and of all which we have now

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* This laudable Association first began to be formed in 1754. It was set on foot by Lord Folkstone, Lord Romney, Dr. Hales, and a few private gentlemen, who were brought together by Mr. William Shipley, a person little known, but of extraordinary application; and who had long laboured to carry into execution a scheme he had pro

jected premiums,

before us a collective view, in methodical arrangement, and (as we apprehend) disposed with the requisite care and accu. racy.

Á more particular idea of the contents of this publication, may be given in the words of the Compiler's Preface.

• It was originally intended by the Society, says Mr. Bailey, to publish an historical register of their transactions, which was prevented by fome occurrences needless here to be mentioned.

• Part of this design (not the least laborious, poflibly not the least useful) is here attempted; and I Aatter myself, so far as the industry of an individual may presume on success, that a publication of the designs and dejcriptions of the many useful and ingenious machines and models placed in their repository, for the benefit of the public, will be a means of still extending this benefit, and co-operate, in some measure, with the truly laudable views of this patriotic Society.'

The method which our Author has taken in digesting the materials of this volume, has been that of arranging the de, figns and descriptions of the several machines and instruments, under those general heads of improvement to which they reípectively relate. Thus Book 1, 2, and 3, relate solely to ebjects of agriculiure; the firft comprehending designs, descriptions, and explanations, of the several ploughs and implements of husbandry, preserved in the repofitory of the Society.

• In the execution of the designs, also, care has been taken to represent not only the whole machine, but every material part of it, in such various points of view, as to enable the artizan to construct it from the description. To this end, more plates than one have been found neceffary in the explanation of some machines ; in which case, such plates referring to one machine or model, are distinguished by numbers. To the perspective views, geometrical plans are also farther added, to facilitate the comprehension of the workman who would copy them in practice.'

In the second Book is given a short account of such ploughs, machines, and models, in the Society's repository of agriculture, as are not yet delineated; and, of course, have not their descriptions assisted by designs on copper-plates.'

Book third contains a list of the noblemen and gentlemen, who, for their distinguished services in promoting the views of the Society, have been presented with honorary or pecuniary

jected for this purpose. His plan was afterwards greatly improved by Mr. Baker, who fuggelted the rules for regulating and govercing the Society; the members of which soon became so very numerous as to afford á moit remarkable and noble proof of the publis fpirit of

the age.

premiums for improvements and discoveries in agriculture and husbandry.'

The 4th, 5th, and 6th Books comprehend the like designs,' descriptions, and explanations, of such of the Society's machines and models as relate to manufactures; with an enumeration of the premiums and bounties given for employing the poor in parish work-houses, and for improvements in various branches of manufacture.

Book 7 and 8 treat of mechanics, and contain designs, &c. of the engines and machines ; among which are descriptions of various kinds of mills, cranes, weaving engines, hydraulic machines, ventilators, &c. together with a particular explanation of the apparatus used by the Dutch, in the turbot and cod fishery.

The remainder of the present volume relates to chemistry, our American colonies, and the polite arts.

The plates, which, as the title-page mentions, are fiftyfive in number, form of themselves a considerable volume when bound separately; and they appear to be very well executed.

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ART. V. A Colletion of curious Discourses written by eminent Anti

quaries, upon several Heads in our English bintiquities. Together with Mr. Thomas Hearne's Preface and Appendix to the former Edition. To which are added, a great Number of Antiquary Discourses written by the same Authors. Most of them now first published from the original Manuscripts. 8vo. 2 Vols. 14 s, in Boards Richardson. 1771. T is with pleasure that we embrace the opportunity now

offered us of recommending to our ftudents of law, an at-, tention to English antiquities. As the study of the law is too frequently conducted, it is harth and disagreeable. The memory of the lawyer is perpetually and fully employed; but be is rarely ioduced to exercise his judgment. He becomes learned in maxims, and precedents, and authorities; and by these he forms and supports his opinions. He can quote, but is feldom able to reason. In the place of general and fundamental principles, he holds out the practice of courts, and the decisions of judges. To comprehend the spirit of laws is no object of his care. His head is crowded with particular facts; and even of these he possesses but an imperfect knowledge. He can talk of the present state, and the prefent form of our laws; but he perceives not the steps by which they arrived at this state and this form. He has not attended their progrets from rudeness to maturity: he is ignorant of the chinges they have undergone: in one word, the branch of knowledge which he ven. tures to profess, he has not ftudied as a science,

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The law, in this aspect, cannot fail of giving disgust and inquietude to the student. His ingenuity is never exerted; his curiosity is never inflamed. He labours, but without pleasure ; and in the sordid prospect of future gain, he alone can find a consolation for the fatigue he suffers. But, if directed by other principles, this study is, of all others, the most delightful. The law, when traced historically from its earliest condition to its more cultivated state, becomes a rational occupation. We see its, connection with manners, and with arts; our faculties are employed and improved in examining the great objects which are most interesting to mankind; we discover the real foundations of government; we perceive the variations of property; and we behold that extensive range of dependencies, which constitutes the fabric of jurisprudence.

The works, accordingly, of our antiquaries and historians ought to be considered by the student of law as the only proper introduction to this study. When he has perused these with attention, he will read with every possible advantage the produce tions of professed lawyers. If to form a due judgment of a para ticular statute, it be absolutely necessary to consider the time when it was framed, and the views of the legislature, it must be no less requisite, in order to conceive a comprehensive idea of the whole system of our laws, that we attend them from their first rough sketches to their more perfect draughts.

A lawyer of some eminence, the Author of " Historical Law. tracts, has offered to the public an example of this enlarged and liberal method of prosecuting legal investigations : but un. happily his doctrines are generally fallacious; and while he gives too great a scope to conjecture and to fancy, he is destitute of erudition, and discovers a propensity to adopt as his own the inventions of other men. The advantages of uniting history with law, and of joining philofophy with both, will be better seen in that delightful work, · The Essay on General History, by Voltaire;' in the writings of Mably, Pfeffel, and Du Bos; in the feudal researches of Montesquieu ; and, abore all, in the admirable • View of the Progress of Society in Eu. rope, from the Subversion of the Roman Empire, to the Begin. ning of the Sixteenth Century, by Dr. Robertson ;' where that learned and moft ingenious Author penetrates into, and explains, in the most masterly manner, all the important and difficult objects of the middle ages; where he advances with bold and decifive steps in the most intricate paths, and explores his way through the double obscurity of antiquity and barbarism.

In the view of this union of history and law, the publication before us may have its use. But as the Discourses were writ

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• Publilbed at Edinburgh, in 2 vols. 8vo.

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