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Oliver Cromwell: but while he draws a character of the Protector, in the words of Boffuet, as an artful hypocrite, capable of forming and of concealing any enterprize, he difcovers herein, we are told, a picture of the Stadtholder of Holland, our King William III. of glorious memory.
From the account which we have here given, our Readers will be able to form à competent judgment of the prefent performance. If in fome inftances the Author acquits himself with candour, ingenuity, and honour, in others he is very inaccurate, inattentive, and partial. By fome letters which are added in the Appendix, he appears to have been himself fenfible of the difadvantages under which he lay for the compleat accomplishment of his defign: in particular he acknowledges, and retracts, a mifreprefentation, of which Mr. Garrick had complained, concerning a disturbance which had arifen in the theatre at Drury-lane: and his Tranflator corrects the very mistaken account which Monf. Grofley had given of the Moravians, by inferting part of a letter from one Mr. H. upon the subject, in confequence of what this Traveller has related.
Amidst the many imperfections and errors with which the work is evidently chargeable, there are a number of judicious remarks, amufing anecdotes, curious enquiries, and ingenious inveftigations, which testify the Writer's acquaintance both with men and books: but it appears that he has been too negligent and precipitate, not only in collecting his materials at firft, but afterwards in digefting them. In all probability his own good fenfe and penetration have already fuggefted to him that a very short refidence in a country, is by no means fufficient to enable even a man of the beft abilities, to give an account of the manners, difpofitions, &c. of a confiderable and multifarious people, and that it is a kind of prefumption, upon fuch fuperficial ground, to attempt it. The very erroneous accounts into which, through ignorance, hurry, or prejudice, he has been betrayed, can hardly be at all compenfated or excufed by the many fenfible and entertaining obfervations with which he has, at the fame time, prefented his readers:
ART. II. Efays and Obfervations, physical and literary. Vol. III. Concluded. See our last Month's Review.
AVING given an account of the articles contained in this volume, from N° 1 to N° 13, inclufive; we now proceed to Art. XIV. Of the Ufe of the Bark in Dyfenteries, and a Hoarfenefs after the Measles, by the late Robert Whytt, M1. D. F. R. S. and Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians in Edinburgh.
As a dyfentery, fays our Author, especially one of the worst kind, is accompanied with a putrid difpofition of the
humours, and a malignant fever; as by the continuance of the disease, the mouth, tongue, fauces, and alimentary canal are often affected with a bad fort of aphthae; and, as a hiccup may come on, and the patient die, although the purging has been confiderably lefs for feveral days, I imagined that the bark might, in fuch cafes, be ufed with advantage; and, upon trial, I had the fatisfaction to find, that I had not been mistaken in my conjecture.
After bleeding once, or oftener, as the circumftances of the patient may require, vomiting once and again with ipecacuanha, and giving feveral dofes of rhubarb, either alone, or with equal parts of the confectio japonica of the Edinburgh dif penfatory, and fome drops of laudanum, I ordered the following decoction:
& Cort. peruvian. pulverat. Zi. Coque ex aqu. fontanae lib. iv. ad lib. i. Subfidat paululum, dein effundatur decoctum. Cui adde confect. japon. ad zii. vel. ZB.
Of this the patient takes two table spoonfuls fix times, or three fpoonfuls four times in the twenty-four hours. It generall agrees with the ftomach, and commonly, in a few days, leffens the purging. While he uses this medicine, I give him no other but fome laudanum at bed-time, to procure reft. If he becomes coftive, which fometimes happens after taking the decoction fix or feven days, I leave out part of the confectio japonica, and give fome rhubarb to open the body.'
Dr. Whytt recommends the bark after the meafles, when a hoarfenefs fucceeds the measles, and is neither accompanied with a quick pulfe, or a difficulty in breathing.
Art. XV. A particular Method of giving the Solution of Corrofive Sublimate Mercury in fmall Dofes, as an Anthelmintic, by John Gardiner, M. D. and Fellow of the Royal College of Phyficians in Edinburgh.
Half a drachm of corrofive fublimate, diffolved in a faturated folution of crude fal ammoniac in water, is made into a paste with crumb of bread, in a glass mortar; and divided into 240 pills, each pill containing one-eighth of a grain.-Two of thefe pills may be given after eleven or twelve years of age twice a-day; a lefs dofe will not prove an effectual poifon for worms. Art. XVI. On the Abuse of Cauflics in venereal warty Excrefcences, by John Gardiner, M. D. Fellow of the Royal College of Phyftcians, Edinburgh.
If the warty excrefcences are fo large as not to be destroyed by two or three applications, the continued ufe of the cauftic is found to render them extremely hard and horny; and though the hard part is fhaved off by the fcalpel, yet there is not the Jeaft diminution of bulk, nor will emollients have the least effect in foftening the hardnefs fo long as the cauftic is in ufc.
In this fituation the moft fuccefsful practice, according to Dr. Gardiner, is to fprinkle the excrefcences with the leaves of the fabina finely powdered, every morning; and at night to apply. an emollient poultice.
Art. XVII. Account of the Lisbon Diet Drink in Venereal Cafes, by Dr. Donald Monro, Phyfician to St. George's Hofpital, London. Dr. Monro's receipt for the Lifbon Diet Drink may be genuine; yet the folitary history related by the Doctor is but an equivocal proof of its efficacy in venereal cafes; for the complaints, which were removed by the Diet Drink, appear to have been raber the effects of long continued mercurial courfes, than of the infection itself.
Art. XVIII. Obfervations on the Catarrhal Epidemic of 1762, by Ebenezer Gilchrift, M. D.
The epidemic here defcribed is produced and propagated by contagion in the air; is a fever fui generis, with catarrhal fymptoms; for the most part regular in its courfe, and terminating in a fenfible crifis; but fometimes continuing long after every symptom of catarrh is gone, and often changing its form.
Dr. Baker has given an account of the fame epidemic as it appeared in London: and in the Gazette de France, du 5 Juillet, 1762, there is a good defcription of the fame disease, as it appeared on fome parts of the continent.
Art. XIX. Obfervations on the Arthritis anomala, with a Poftfcript, relating chiefly to the Cure of the regular Gout, by the late David Clerk, M. D. Fellow of the Royal College of Phyficians, Edinburgh.
This paper contains fome useful hiftories, and good practi cal obfervations both on the regular and anomalous gout. And in the fucceeding article, we have likewife fome additional obfervations on the fame fubjects, by the late Dr. Whytt, who was a very ingenious phyfiologift, and an excellent practical phyfician.
Art. XXI. Of the Urinary Bladder thickened. By Ebenezer Gilchrift, M. D.
The urinary bladder may be thickened, fays our Author, various ways. 1. From inflammation. 2. From a schirrous difpofition, affecting it wholly or in part. 3. The inner membrane becomes fpongy and flabby, when its numerous glands are overcharged, which, in this cafe, throw out their contents in great abundance: here we have the idea of a rheum. 4. The fides of the bladder fometimes grow thick and hard, from a long and rigid contraction of its mufcular fibres, by which the capacity of it is fo much diminished that it can contain but a fmall quantity of urine, which, with painful urgings, it is conftantly endeavouring to expel. The part is now under a fpafm;
and, when thus affected, is, by French authors, termed veffie racornie. 5. Without any contraction, or having its capacity diminished, which, on the contrary, is greatly enlarged, the whole bladder fuffers an uniform thickening of all its coats, or fuch an increase of its fubftance as feems peculiar to membranous parts.'
The laft of thefe is what Dr. Gilchrift has in view, in this paper. He relates fix hiftories of the disease, points out the Tymptoms by which it may be diftinguifhed, and then the method of cure; which chiefly confifts in giving the mercurial pill, in the dose of eight or ten grains every night. In three or four days this dofe commonly affects the mouth; a revulfion is then plainly made, and a refolution begun; the inflammation and tenderness of the tumour gradually abate; the tenfion of the bladder and stricture of its orifice relax; the urine flowly efcapes, and comes away with lefs pain; and all the fymptoms are relieved.
The two next articles are chirurgical; the first gives an account of an amputation of the arm without hæmorrhage; and the fecond, the hiftory of a fractured fternum.
Art. XXIV. The Cafe of a Perfon who was feemingly killed by a Blow on the Breaft, recovered by Bleeding and the Warm Bath, in a Letter addreffed to Dr. Alexander Monro, fen. by William Alexander, M. D.
In this patient there was no fenfible refpiration; no pulfe to be diftinguished either in the wrift, or in any other part of the body; nor did any blood iffue, on a large incifion being made into a vein. But, in about three minutes after he was put into the bath, the water round the orifice began to be tinged with blood in two minutes more, the blood iffued out very perceptibly; in feven minutes he began to breathe; and other fymptoms of recovery foon fucceeded.
Art. XXV. Concerning the State of the Inteftines in old Dyfenteries, by D. Donaid Monro, Physician to the Army, and to St. George's Hofpital at London.
It appears, from a great number of diffections, that, in old dyfenteries, the villous coat of the intestines is eroded, and that thefe erofions do not extend beyond the rectum and colon.
The next paper contains fome ingenious but unfuccessful attempts to extirpate a large polypus in the pharynx and cefophagus, by the late Mr. Dallas. And in the fucceeding article, Dr. Alexander Monro gives the fequel of the cafe, and an engraving reprefenting the appearances on diffection.
In the 28th Article we have Camper's obfervations on the direction in which the fractures of bones are generally made,
and on the formation of the callus.
Art. XXIX. The Hiftory of two Cafes of Stones lodged partly in the Bladder, and partly in the Urethra, by Dr. Livingflon, Phy fician at Aberdeen.
One of these stones was extracted from a living, the other from a dead fubject. Each patient had the fymptoms of the ftone from his infancy, and violent unremitting pain for two years before the extraction, accompanied with a conftant fillicidium urina.
Art. XXX. Of the Ufe of Mercury in convulfive Disorders, by Dr. Donald Minro, Physician to St. George's Hofpital, London. The convulfive motions, for the cure of which mercury is here recommended, are thofe which accompany the opisthotanos, tetanus, and locked-jaw.-This method of cure was communicated to Dr. Monro, by a gentleman of the faculty who refided in the ifland of Jamaica.
While this gentleman practifed in Jamaica, he had a great number of cafes of the tetanus, attended with the locked-jaw, under his care. At first, he used to give very freely of opium, musk, and other medicines of this clafs; to bleed, and make other evacuations, while he ufed baths, fomentations, embrocations, and other external applications, but all without the leaft fuccefs; and, as he had loft a great many patients without being fo lucky as to make one cure, he began to believe that this diforder always proved fatal, and was not to be cured by medicine, notwithstanding what fome practitioners had alledged. However, having received an unexpected hint concerning the good effects of the mercurial ointment in such cases, he refolved to try it; and ordered the first patient that offered to be put into a warm room, and to be rubbed two or three times a day with the ointment, till fuch time as a falivation was raifed, when he, with pleasure, obferved, that as foon as the mercury began to affect the mouth, the convulfions of the mufcles of the jaws, as well as all the other fpafms and convulfions, ceased, and the patient was freed of all his complaints.
After this, he treated every cafe of this kind which came under his care in the fame manner, and cured twelve, which were all who applied to him for advice fo early in the disorder, that there was time to bring the mercury to the mouth before the fatal period was expected. A few died in whom the disease was fo far advanced before he saw them, that there was not time to raise a falivation.'
All the cafes which came under this gentleman's care in the Weft Indies, were the effects of the climate, and not the confequences of wounds or capital operations. Dr. Alexander Monro, however, in the laft Article of this volume, relates the hiftory of a patient who was feized with the locked-jaw after a fracture of the leg, and wounding the teguments at the