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naturally, while they are cloathing them in the moft polished terms afforded by the languages in which they write.

To conclude. Though we cannot approve the high strain of panegyric in which the Oriental taste in gardening is here celebrated, nor the unjust contempt with which our ingenious countrymen are treated, -yet our candour will not suffer us to with-hold from this performance the praise which is its due, viz. that it affords, among a multitude of extravagancies, a few hints of improvement which we may adopt without scruple, and follow with advantage.

* We must not forget to mention that a sketch of this work appeared fome years ago. Accordingly, the Author informs his readers that the favourable reception granted to that little performance, induced him to collect materials for this.


For AUGUST, 1772.

MEDICAL. Art. 12. Reflections and Observations on the Gout. By Sir James

Jay, Knt. M. D. 8vo. 2 s. Kearsly. 1772. Sarcher

UCH is the peculiar completion of this pamphlet, that the

arthritic who would profit from the Author's knowledge of the disease of which he treats, has no other way of availing himself of that advantage, than by putting himself under the immediate care of che Writer of it. Nay even the faculty will not find themselves very confiderably enlightened by any thing that the Doctor has chosen to communicate in this publication, with regard to the particular na. tore of this diftemper, or his avowedly successful method of treating it. It must be acknowledged, nevertheless, that it contains some feofible but very general observations, on the proper course to be pursued in investigating the nature of the gout; the general tendency of which is to recommend a proper freedom of thinking on this disease, which has been the object of the most extravagant and cons tradi&ory theories among physicians, and of the most absurd and groundless boalts among the herd of empirics.

Thus far the Author's defign is commendable, and it is doing him only common judice to observe that his reflections on the errors of preceding writers, and on the causes which gave birth to them, are judicious and well founded. No less commendable is his conclufion, that the only way to arrive at a real knowledge of the nature and cure of the gout, is patiently to colle&t accurate descriptions of cases, soder all the varieties of circumstances, produced by different causes, and relieved, cured, or injured by different means."

Accordingly, and apparently in prosecution of this judicious plan, these general reflections are followed by the histories of several gouty les that had fallen under the Author's management. - But here the man of science suddenly takes his leave of us, and appears to allume a different character. From these histories the expecting Reader can collect no useful information, except it should prove of advantage to


him to be informed that the Doctor (who however does not pretend to be in poffeffion of any noftrum or specific for the gout) is pofseffed of a peculiarly successful method of treating this refractory distemper. In these exhibitions of the Author's skill and prowess, we be. hold the disease, in the manifestly unequal conflict between them, fullenly retreating, and the Doctor gradually gaining ground on his churlith antagonist, and at length fairly driving him of the stage.But the machinery by which these happy movements are effected is most affiduously concealed; nor is a single glimpse to be obtained by the most prying spectator, of the latent fprings and wires by which the grand mover, behind the curtain, produces these falutary changes in the scene.--In short, this pamphlet evidently appears to be what the French call une honnete affiche, that is, a creditable kind of ad. vertisement, insinuating that the Writer of it understands the nature of the disease in question better than his neighbours, and that he is qualified to give fuperior relief to those afflicted with it.

We shall not dispute the truth of these positions, nor question the authenticity of the histories, from which the Reader is naturally led to draw conclusions of this kind for himself: though the cases are not authenticated upon oath, as is the practice of our numerous medical advertisers of inferior rank; who choose, like our Author, to be upon the reserve with the public, as to the means by which they daily and miraculously relieve so many of their fellow-creatures, abandoned by the rest of the faculty. Some reasons are offered by the Author for his uncommunicativeness : but a certain inostensible and not very creditable reason will naturally occur to the Reader, which is not even hinted at in this very lame apology. Art. 13. , An Ejay on the Nature and Causes of the Gout, with a

few Conje£tures on the Probability of its Cure. By Marmaduke Berdoe, M.D. 8vo. 1 s. 6 d. Bath printed.

1 s. 6 d. Bath printed. Sold by Lowndes in London. 1772.

This gentleman has, within a very short space of time, furnished us with two occasions of animadverting on his productions; and we are sorry that we now find ourselves under the necessity of speaking rather unfavourably of a third :—fo far at least as to declare that we can find no new or useful information in it t; though, to use his own words, it contains the views in which he has been taught to consider the gout, with Hippocrates, Hoffman, and Staahl, under the friendly intructions of Meffrs. Robert, de Bordeu, Fouquet, &c.' - In short, of that galaxy of French medical luminaries, whose shining lights this Writer has undertaken to display, for the illumi. dation of his countrymen. And yet to these gentlemen, as it appears to us, we are indebted for most of the obscure jargon in the theoretical part of this performance, concerning the propulfive force,' the fenfibility, action, and expansion of the phrenic centres,'

* See Monthly Review for April laft, page 443 and 445. + We thould perhaps except a short history which the Author gives of the brilliant effects of the Hyoscyamus albus, or Henbane, lately administered with success in the case of a rheumatic gout of long standing, by Dr. Pouquet at Montpelier ; who likewile perforins very furprizing cures with it,' in the Military Hospital at that place, in the fcrophula and cancerous complaints.'


the oscillations of the various fluids towards the interior region,' and many other terms equally vague, uninstructive, and unintelligible; but which occur almost in every paragraph, and are introduced to explain every appearance.

The whole drift of this essay appears to be nothing more than to shew that there is a connection between the gout, dropsy, cholic, &c, and the hypochondriac paflion ; that the gout may be considered as an acute paroxysm of the hypochondriac disorder ; that the hæmorrhoidal fux is falutary in this last-mentioned disease, and conse. quently is beneficial in the gout. To evince these truths, a few meagre cases are added, which are really fingular, for their triteness and insignificance. As a specimen of the oitentatious poverty of this part of the present publication, we shall give one of the Author's cafes intire; where we find him taking a weary and needless journey as far as Siberia, only to prove, with the greater parade, that cold may produce a discharge of blood upwards and downwards,

by an ofcillation of the humours being thrown upon the intestinal canal.' The Abbé Chappe, as we have formerly related, was seized with the bloody flux and a spitting of blood in Siberia. [Monthly Rev. Dec. 1769, p. 434.] This event, which might have happened under the line, furnishes the Author with his

Eighth Observation.' , The Abbé Chappe, a celebrated attronomer, was sent into Sibe. ria to observe the transit of Venus. He had scarce been more than three or four months in that country, before he suffered so confiderable a loss of blood by vomiting and stool, that he found himself obliged to quit it with the utmott expedition.'

Why will Writers thus claim the attention of the public, when they have nothing either new or useful to communicate to them? Art. 14. Dr. Cadogan's Dillertation on the Gout, and all other

Chronic Diseases, examined and refuted. In a Letter to the Author, by John Berkenhout, M. D. 8vo. Bladon.

1772. This very sensible and facetious Answerer has no mercy on the ere rors in fact and in doctrine that he meets with in Dr. Cadogan's Differtation. Accordingly he occasionally hits the Doctor some hard raps, not ill applied; for which he apologizes, by observing that controversy is dull, and requires a little zest to keep the Reader's attention awake. The Reader is doubtless obliged to him for this very palatable mixture of science and pleasantry; but how Dr. Ca. dogan will relish the composition, we know not. Art. 15. RefieEtions serving to illustrate the Doctrine advanced by

Dr. Cadogan, on the Gout and all Chronic Diseases. By Thomas Dray, Surgeon. 8vo. 6d. Canterbury printed. Sold by Hawes and Co. in London. 1772.

This Illußrator of Dr. Cadogan's doctrine, throws no light, that we can discover, on the subject. He seems horribly apprehensive (and indeed scarce talks of any thing else) of acids, and of the prevalence of an acid acrimony. "He tells us how acids weaken the powers of nature'--that it was a saving, when he was very young,



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that acids produce the gout'—and how, having a pain in his stomach, he once drank plenty of water acidulated with spirit of vitriol at his dinner, and could get no rest, poor gentleman! till he threw all his dinner up again.--In short, we think the public might have been spared these very unimportant, rambling rełections; the Writer of which, in general, appears the mere echo of Dr. Cadogan's doctrines, and, as other echoes are wont to do, sends them back with diminished force. Art, 16. Sermons to the Rich and Studious, on Temperance and Ex

ercise. With a Dedication to Dr. Cadogan. By a Physician. 12mo. I S. Dilly. 1772.

This physician assumes the gown and band, and inculcates, ex cathedra, in a very agreeable and energetic manner, the fundamen-' tal doctrines of man's bodily salvation in three discourses ; in the first of which he speaks of temperance in eating. In the second, he recommends the use, and diffuades his supposed hearers from the abuse, of wine and strong drink. In the third, he lays before them the comforts and advantages of exercise, as equally conducive to the health of the body and the vigour of the mind. He alternately addresses the reason and the pallions of his audience. He is sometimes didactic, and at other times descriptive and pathetic. In some points he differs from his lay brother, to whom these discourses are addressed; though like him he maintains some fingular opinions. On the whole, the discourses of this Medical Preacher may be read with pleasure, and not without some degree of edification. Art. 17. Corrections in Verse, from the Father of the College, on

Son Cadogan's Gout Dissertation : Containing false Phyfic, false Logic, falje Philosophy. By Sir William Browne. 460.6d. Dodiley. 1772.

More gouty matter ftill!-But by the title surely these should be verses, and thould accordingly figúre among our poetry - It may be fo: but the foregoing gouty groupe cannot, we think, be more properly closed than with these hobbling lines ; of which we hall take a hafty leave, by giving one of the last distichs, addressed to Dr. Cadogan, which may serve at once as a specimen, and as a very proper address from us (making only the necessary changes of perSons) to this equally pitiless and deplorable bard : V. 186. • Thus, the best thing, Sir William, We can say,

Is, We leave you, IN MISERICORDIA !! Art. 18. Seleet Cafes in the Practice of Medicine. By John Bris

bane, M. D. Member of the R. College of Physicians, and Senior Physician to the Middlesex Hospital. 8vo.' is. 6 d. Cadell. 3772.

These few cases are not published, as the Author observes, 'to amuse those who love the obscure and marvellous,' but with a view to fhew what may be done, even in rare and dangerous diseases, by the use of medicines of the most simple kind. The four first cases relate to that very rare disease, the true diabetes, as described by Aretæus, and which the Author cured or relieved by the use of cantharides, which he was induced to exhibit on a supposition that the distes per might, in some cases at least, be produced by a paralysis


of the nerves of the urinary passages. The two cases that follow contain the history and cure of a disease in the esophagus, similar to that described by Dr. Munckley in the first volume of the Mejical Transactions; and which, though probably not of the venereal kind, yielded to a spitting excited by mercury. Three cases are next related of malignant ulcers, one of them evidently of a cancerous nature, cured only by the use of a decoction of farsaparilla. These are followed by a short and not sufficiently circumftantial history of some schirrous tumours in the breast of a woman, tending to a cancerous ftate, and which had eluded every common method of relief, but yielded to the daily use of the electrical machine; by which the schirrous tumours were considerably dissolved, and the pains gradually diminished, and at length totally removed. The Author con-, cludes with the accounts of two nervous or paralytic cases, in which the wild valerian root appeared to have performed the chief part of the cure; and with the history of a leprous or scaly cutaneous disorder, which seems to have been removed principally by the exhibition of the antimonial wine. Art. 19. A Differtation upon Nervous Ganglions, and "Nervous

Plexus. By John Caverhill, M. D. Member of the R. College of Physicians, and F.R.S. 8vo. I s. 6 d. Robson. 1772.

We muft honestly confess that we sat down to the perusal of this Dissertation not without some degree of prejudice, produced by a xi fomewhat unlucky declaration of the Author in the front of it; ihe sole purport of which is to intimate that the observations contained in it tend to confirm a part of his hypothesis concerning the cause of animal heat. Those who have perused this Writer's fingular and : extravagant system on this subject, or who have seen our sort strictures upon it*, will not wonder at the effects of this declaration ; when they recollect that he attributes the production of animal heat to the friction of the nervous fuid, or matter, passing through the nervous tubali, with the inconceivable rapidiry of about a foot in a fortnight. In this state of mind we may be thought partial judges of the truth and solidity of the Author's present theory :- but indeed neither will our limits allow us to discuss this very obscure and intricate subject. We shall therefore only briefly observe that the Author's opinion concerning the uses of the ganglions appears to have been principally founded on an observation made on the dissection of a dog, who was fubject to fingular convulsions of the fore thigh, synchronous to every pulsation of the arterial system; the cause of which involuntary motions the Author attributed to a ganglion wnich he discovered in the limb, in contact with an artery. The result of his subsequent disiections and observations was that all the ganglions in the body are always placed in contact with arteries, or with parts endowed with constant motion ;' and his principal inference seems to be that the gangiions being thereby subjecied to a contipued series of impulses, are destined to accelerate the nervous influence, and to excite involuntary motion.

* Monthly Review, vol. xliii. September 1770, page 212.



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